Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Understanding how carbon from Kelp forests enters remote parts of the ocean – and the role of Sea Urchins in making this happen.

Benthic Algae and Plants in coastal waters are some of the most productive organisms on Earth, making atmospheric carbon available to other organisms in the oceans by photosynthesis. This carbon provides a food source not just for other organisms in the same environment, but for much of the life in the deep oceans, most of which relies on nutrients filtering down from the shallows. A significant amount of this material is also thought to become buried on the deep sea floor, taking carbon out of the ocean/atmosphere cycle on a more long term basis. However, while these processes are understood in broad outline, the way in which material moves from the shallows to the deep ocean is only very superficially known.

In a paper published in the journal Scientific Reports on 21 November 2018, Thomas Wernberg of the UWA Oceans Institute and School of Biological Sciences at the University of Western Australia, and the Department of Science and Environment at Roskilde University, and Karen Filbee-Dexter of the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, and the Institute of Marine Research, describe the results of a study of how particles of Kelp spread from their coastal forests.

Kelps are the largest Marine Algae (Seaweeds), forming great forests in temperate and polar waters, with individual Kelps reaching tens of metres in length. Wernberg and Filbee-Dexter collected samples of the Common European Kelp, Laminaria hyperborea, which forms extensive coastal forests from Portugal to Norway, from Malangen Fjord in Troms County, Norway, as well as specimens of the Green Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, which like other Sea Urchins around the world, is a significant consumer of Kelp.

The Kelps were cut into pieces and the size and sinking speed in water of these pieces was measured, as was that of the faeces of Sea Urchins allowed to consume Kelp; although Sea Urchins are voracious consumers of Kelp, their digestive system is somewhat inefficient, and their faeces contains significant amounts of undigested Kelp, which is potentially available to other organisms.

Wernberg and Filbee-Dexter found that large stipes (stems) and whole fronds of Kelp sank to the bottom rapidly, sinking at an average rate of between 0.165 and 0.185 m per second, and not drifting far from their starting point. Smaller pieces of Kelp sank more slowly, at between 0.
and 0.076 m per second, and were able to drift further. By far the slowest, and most prone to drifting, however, were the Sea Urchin faeces, which sank at a rate of between 0.008 and 0.014 m per second, and drifting much further; Wernberg and Filbee-Dexter estimate that as much as 22% of Kelp-derived carbon could reach or pass beyond the continental shelves as Sea Urchin faeces.

Kelp detrital particles (Laminaria hyperborea) from Malangen, northern Norway. (a) Accumulation of Sea Urchin faeces in a small depression, (b) small resuspended fragments, (c) whole blade at the bottom of the fjord (400 m depth), (d) medium sized fragments on a sandy bottom, (e) accumulation of fragments attached to, and consumed by Sea Urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis), and (f) a whole plant being shredded by Sea Urchins. Wernberg & Filbee-Dexter (2018). 
  
See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/acanthaster-solaris-using-environmental.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/sertulaster-keslingi-and-delicaster.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2018/12/linguaserra-triassica-new-species-of.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2018/03/thousands-of-starfish-wash-up-on.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2016/02/estimating-role-of-temperature-in-sea.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2015/12/iocrinus-africanus-new-species-of.html
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    Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete
  19. I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete
  20. I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete
  21. My husband left me for another woman after one year of our marriage. I needed him back desperately because i loved him so much. I became very worried and needed help. On this faithful day  as i was browsing through the internet, I came across a particular testimony about this good DR IROSI help get ex back fast and stop a divorce or breakup and so on , So I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (return Love spell) for me. 48 hours later, my husband came back to me crying and begging for my forgiveness. Today I’m so happy and i want to recommend this great spell caster to anyone that truly needs an urgent solution to his or her broken relationships and marriage email him at:(DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM) Simply contact the great “DR IROSI” If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you., do not cry anymore-contact this powerful spell caster now. Thank you DR IROSI for saving my broken relationships and brought my husband back to me!” email him at: (DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM) or call/whatsapp him via: +2348118829771.    

    ReplyDelete
  22. I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  24. I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete
  25. Hi guys, if you have been a victim of any binary/ cryptocurrency scam, contact easybitcoinrecovery@gmail.com they're highly recommendable, and were efficient in getting my initially lost 2btc refunded.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Greatest thanks to Dr Oyagu for his herbal drugs that he prepared for me and when i start using it in just 2weeks i was completely cured and that ended my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE i am so happy and grateful to Dr Oyagu . after reading about him on a testimony of Jason Cash on a blogger. i knew suddenly Dr Oyagu was the right Doctor to cure my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE. i discuss with Dr Oyagu and he prepared a herbal medicine for me and when it got sent to me in south korean . i used the herbal medicine and 2weeks and i went to check up again. after 15years of suffering from HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 at last i am smiling once again. Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from your suffering. contact his WhatsApp line: +2348101755322 or his Email:Oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  27. Greatest thanks to Dr Oyagu for his herbal drugs that he prepared for me and when i start using it in just 2weeks i was completely cured and that ended my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE i am so happy and grateful to Dr Oyagu . after reading about him on a testimony of Jason Cash on a blogger. i knew suddenly Dr Oyagu was the right Doctor to cure my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE. i discuss with Dr Oyagu and he prepared a herbal medicine for me and when it got sent to me in south korean . i used the herbal medicine and 2weeks and i went to check up again. after 15years of suffering from HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 at last i am smiling once again. Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from your suffering. contact his WhatsApp line: +2348101755322 or his Email:Oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  28. I am Linda from USA. I Want to say a very big thanks to DR Kogi for the wonderful work he did for me in helping me to save my marriage, my husband ask for a divorce letter because of the little misunderstanding we had in the past few month, And i never wanted this because i love my husband so much and all our investment was a joint business and i don't want to be far away from my family and my two lovely kids. My friend told me about DR Kogi and how he also helped her with her marital issues, so i had to contact him because i want to stop my husband from completing the divorce letter and i want to keep my family together and after contacting him, i was told what i needed to do and when i was going to start seeing the result, I did as DR Kogi has instructed and after 2 days my Husband called me and start asking for my forgiveness and it was all like a dream to me and we are all living happily together again all thanks to DR Kogi .          
          Contact Him today via Email:    drkogispellcaster@gmail.com                       
     Call/ whatsapp Dr via +2348054405058

     
    you can also contact him for solutions on other issues such as1) Lottery spell2) Ex back3) Pregnancy issues4) Cure for all kinds of sickness, disease and infection..... contact him today for your lasting solution


    EMAIL DR: drkogispellcaster@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  29. Greatest thanks to Dr Oyagu for his herbal drugs that he prepared for me and when i start using it in just 2weeks i was completely cured and that ended my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE i am so happy and grateful to Dr Oyagu . after reading about him on a testimony of Jason Cash on a blogger. i knew suddenly Dr Oyagu was the right Doctor to cure my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE. i discuss with Dr Oyagu and he prepared a herbal medicine for me and when it got sent to me in south korean . i used the herbal medicine and 2weeks and i went to check up again. after 15years of suffering from HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 at last i am smiling once again. Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from your suffering. contact his WhatsApp line: +2348101755322 or his Email:Oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  30. Dr. Kham herbal medicine is the best remedy for Herpes and HIV/AIDS, I was a carrier of Herpes and I saw a testimony on how Dr. Kham cure Herpes, I decided to have a contact with him and asked him for help and he started the remedies for my health and prepare the herbal medicine for me which i use to cure myself. Thank God, now everything is fine, I’m cured by Dr. Kham herbal medicine, I’m very thankful to Dr.Kham and i will not stop publishing his name on the internet because of the good work he did for me, You can reach him on his email: dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com Or you can call and WhatsApp him on +2348159922297, You can also visit his website: https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/    


    DOCTOR KHAM CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER OF ALL KINDS
    4. HSV
    5. Hepatitis A,B,C
    6. Diabetes
    7. CHRONIC DISEASE

    Natural remedy for curing HERPES and HIV. Call and whatsapp Dr Kham on +2348159922297

    ReplyDelete
  31. Joy and happiness is all i can see around ever since i came in contact with this great man. i complained bitterly to him about me having herpes only for him to tell me it’s a minor stuff. He told me he has cured thousands of people but i did not believe until he sent me the herbal medicine and i took it as instructed by this great man, only to go to the hospital after two weeks for another test and i was confirmed negative. For the first time in four years i was getting that result. i want to use this medium to thank this great man. His name is Dr Oyagu, i came in contact with his email through a friend in UK and ever since then my live has been full with laughter and great peace of mind. i urge you all with herpes or HSV to contact him if you willing to give him a chance. you can contact him through this email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348101755322
    He also cured my friend with HIV and ever since then i strongly believe he can do all things. Don't be deceived thinking he does not work, i believe if you can get in contact with this man all your troubles will be over. i have done my part in spreading the good news. Contact him through his email and you will be the next to testify of his great work.


    ReplyDelete
  32. Joy and happiness is all i can see around ever since i came in contact with this great man. i complained bitterly to him about me having herpes only for him to tell me it’s a minor stuff. He told me he has cured thousands of people but i did not believe until he sent me the herbal medicine and i took it as instructed by this great man, only to go to the hospital after two weeks for another test and i was confirmed negative. For the first time in four years i was getting that result. i want to use this medium to thank this great man. His name is Dr Oyagu, i came in contact with his email through a friend in UK and ever since then my live has been full with laughter and great peace of mind. i urge you all with herpes or HSV to contact him if you willing to give him a chance. you can contact him through this email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348101755322
    He also cured my friend with HIV and ever since then i strongly believe he can do all things. Don't be deceived thinking he does not work, i believe if you can get in contact with this man all your troubles will be over. i have done my part in spreading the good news. Contact him through his email and you will be the next to testify of his great work.


    ReplyDelete
  33. PERFECT NATURAL HERBS AND VEGANS CURE FOR Herpes 1&2 THAT WORK FAST WITHIN 14 DAYS WITH DR ELINFOH HERBAL MEDICINE, I saw so many testimonies about Dr ELINFOH a great HERBAL DOCTOR that will help you CURE and give you the rightful health to live a joyful life, i didn't believe it at first, but as the pain got worsen and my life was at risk after using lots of ARV drugs from the hospital and no changes so i decided to give a try to Dr Elinfoh I contacted him also and told him i want a cure for Herpes , he gave me advice on what i must do and he deliver it to me in my home address i gave him and i got the medicine which i use according to his instruction, and today i must say I am so grateful to this man Dr Elinfoh for curing me from Herpes and for restoring me back to my normal health and a sound life and i am making this known to every one out there who have been trying all day to be cured from Herpes or any sickness should not waste more time just contact him with his details below, believe me this is the only way to get cured from Hepres , this is the real solution we all have been searching for. Do not waste more time contacting him today for you can also leave a sound and happy life. contact info below. Email: (drelinfohherbalhome@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp or Call him on: +2348110492072. and you can as well contact him on other issues you are having like*HEPATITIS B*DIABETICS*CANCER*ALS*HERPES*BODY REDUCTION*BREAST ENLARGEMENT*FIBROD*CANCER*PREGNANCY MISCARRIAGE*Relationship issues etc.. ** Neoplasms*Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
    *Chronic Respiratory Diseases
    * Mental and Behavioral Disorders
    *Alzheimer’s Disease
    Email: (drelinfohherbalhome@gmail.com).    
    Via whatsapp +2348110492072. I pray God also blesses you with your heart's desire as you get in touch with Dr Elinfoh.

    ReplyDelete

  34. i already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have go to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Angela i contacted him and he reassured me with him herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally free from Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322..
    He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine:
    1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

    ReplyDelete
  35. I am here to say a big thanks to you Dr Oniha for making me a complete person again, I was infected with HERPES for 6 years. I have been seriously praying to God and searching for a cure. I came here last month to search for a solution to my problem and I saw comments of people talking about how they get cured through the use of your herbal medicine. Which made me contact you for help and you surprise me and filled me with joy, now I am free from the disease. I am forever grateful to Dr Oniha. Anyone with such a disease can also contact Dr Oniha for cure.
    Website:http://onihaspelltemple.com  
    Email: onihaherbalhome@gmail.com
    Whatsapp number:+16692213962
    The following disease are cured by Dr Oniha.
    HERPES 1&2FIBROIDDIABETE 1/2
    RPES GENITAL
    ERECTILE DISFUNCTION
    WEAK ERECTION
    ALS
    HPV 123
    PREMATURE EJACULATION
    HEART FAILURE
    HEPATITIS B
    Penis Enlargement

    ReplyDelete
  36. Dr Olori Traditional Herbal Therapy is the best to treat Herpes virus, I have had herpes for 12 years now and I have tried so many ways to get rid of herpes totally but to know avail but I kept on searching. Couple weeks ago I came across a review about Dr Olori herbs, it was quite convincing because I believe in natural herbs for healing as I have been a vegan for a couple years now. So I decided to give it a try, I am overwhelmed with joy as I am totally free from herpes so I decided to share among others. You can get in touch with Dr Olori via email: droloriherbalcenter@gmail.com, call/Whatsapp +2348110492548. He does have herbs for Other ailments such as   Hpv, Diabetes, Hepatitis, Cervical Cancer. You can place your order on his website: https://dr-olori-traditional-healng-herbs.weeblysite.com/ .

    ReplyDelete
  37. Herpes Virus is a terrible virus, if not for my Husband and the help of the great Dr.Alabi my life would have been a mess! I was diagnose with Herpes virus in 2012, my husband encouraged me, and told me not to lose hope, I manage to give birth to a baby Boy who was free from this virus, and my Husband was always there for me! One day he came to me and told me that he have found a man who can cure me. Base on scientist, they said there is no cure for Herpes virus; he told me that he has seen many testimonies about him on the internet. We decided to contact him, we filled his Herbal home form, and he asked us to buy some local root and herbs items which we did! and he prepared for me a herbal medicine and 14 days later he asked me to go for medical test, faithfully hopefully i went for the medical test, and Behold, I was cured, from this virus and its was not found in my Body system again... My Dear Husband and my Father Dr.Alabi, God will surely bless the both of you, till the end of time, in Jesus name.. If you have any problem kindly contact Dr Alabi via his email (Dr.Alabiherbalhome@yahoo.com) or whatsapp him on +1{810}4982897 for any kind of help......

    ReplyDelete
  38. I have to say wholeheartedly I believe Oniha is a gifted individual and gentle in his second nature. I have received the most rewarding and spiritual experience whilst conversing with him on the telephone. I heard and saw an angel in my mind-eye it was so overwhelming. I knew at the moment finally my difficulties were over. He deserves recognition for his power and talents as a beautiful individual who brings spirit close to those in need. I have been touched deeply,nothing has come as close to me before. I am in total awe and have a great deal of respect. Thank you Dr Oniha for reuniting me with my estranged husband. Anyone who needs relationship help should contact this man and he will help you. 
    EMAIL: ONIHASPELLTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM
    WHATSAPP: +16692213962
    WEBSITE: http://onihaspelltemple.com 

    ReplyDelete