Sunday, 12 January 2020

Studying land cover transformation in the Savé-Limpopo Lowveld of Zimbabwe.

The loss of biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is in large-part attributable to anthropogenic activity; particularly agricultural expansion, with concomitant deforestation, human–wildlife conflicts and illegal harvesting. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has linked biodiversity decline in Africa to habitat loss through agricultural growth, compounded by poverty and poor governance. Privately owned conservancies (de facto protected areas) in Zimbabwe, mostly in the Savé-Limpopo lowveld, were targeted under land reform programme, from 2000 onward. Land reform in the Savé-Limpopo lowveld appears to have been more political than environmental; wildlife was all but eradicated on resettled conservancies, and even a part of Gonarezhou National Park was occupied. In the Savé Valley Conservancy alone, 6454 wild animals were killed illegally from 2001 to 2009, including critically endangered species such as Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis. Indigenous woodlands were extensively cleared, and wildlife corridors impeded. Supporters of land reform indicate that local communities simply exercised their right to act in their own self interest, and that localised resource management is no longer exclusive in nature.

In a paper published in the African Journal of Ecology on 25 November 2019, Lochran Traill of the School of Biological and Environmental Sciences at Liverpool John Moores University and the School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, and Jolene Fisher, also of the School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, describe the results of a study of land cover change in the Savé-Limpopo lowveld since 2000.

While fortress conservation is subject to criticism, protected areas are still successful in mitigating species' loss in Africa. Protected areas provide critical refuge to flora and fauna in an anthropogenic landscape, in particular threatened and endemic species, and further create millions of jobs through the tourism industry. An analysis on the conservation effectiveness of protected areas globally found some variance in the capacity of reserves and parks to protect species' populations, but the overall effect to be positive. Protected areas have also been found to reduce deforestation, although substantial variance exists within and between countries. Despite the positive conservation outcomes of protected areas, these can impose social costs on local communities, through foregone economic opportunities and human–wildlife conflict.

The opportunity costs of protected areas, and lack of support for wildlife conservation outside of formal reserves has prompted legislation (in some African states) for the devolved responsibility of wildlife management to land-owners or communities. Wildlife is subsequently seen as a grass-root resource that has the potential to prosper if land managers, through proprietorship, can integrate wildlife to their own advantage. Zimbabwe, until recently, provided a suitable case-study on the success of this policy, through the country's CAMPFIRE programme that transferred conservation decision-making to poor rural communities, and the shift from pastoralism to wildlife-management on many private properties, and the ultimate unification of these into conservancies.

Although indigenous woodland loss on lowveld protected areas post-2000 has been studied previously, this has not been quantified in the Savé-Limpopo Region. Traill and Fisher used remote sensing to estimate the loss of woodlands in three lowveld protected areas; the Chiredzi River and Savé Valley conservancies, and Gonarezhou National Park from 2000 to 2015. They also provide some recommendation on ways forward; although our their work is intended to be more useful as a scientific baseline of tree cover within the protected areas in the region pre-2000. This should act to counter shifting baselines regards future conservation decisions.

The study sites, Chiredzi River and Savé Valley conservancies, and Gonarezhou National Park, within the Save-Limpopo lowveld, Zimbabwe, are situated approximately 460 m above sealevel. To assess the loss of woody cover in each protected area, Traill and Fisher used the Hansen Global Forest Change software package. Tree cover in 2000 was quantified using the Treecover2000 software, which measures canopy closure for vegetation taller than 5 m, per 30 m pixel. Tree loss was
measured using the Loss Year software which is an annual measurement of loss of vegetation from a forest to nonforest condition, from 2001 to 2015. Land under subsistence farming and formal agriculture in Chiredzi and Savé Valley conservancies were manually digitised in ArcMap from a Landsat 7 image for August 2000 and a Landsat 8 image for August 2015. August images (early dry season) were chosen as cloud cover was relatively low during this time. 

The location of study sites in Zimbabwe's South-East Lowveld. Shown here are Gonarezhou  National Park, and Chiredzi River and Savé Valley conservancies. Traill & Fisher (2019).

Following land reform in 2000, substantial areas of two protected areas in Zimbabwe's Savé-Limpopo lowveld were transformed from indigenous woodland to subsistence-based farmland. Traill and Fisher's results show that approximately 60% of the Chiredzi River and 16.5% of the Savé Valley Conservancies were converted to subsistence agricultural land (between 2000 and 2015. Similar findings regarding forest transformation following land reform in Zimbabwe have been documented elsewhere, as well as increased incidence of soil degradation and loss.

Spatial representation of land cover change in Chiredzi River and Savé Valley conservancies. (a) The proportion of land under ‘commercial cropping’ and wildlife at the start of 2000 and (b) the proportion of land under ‘commercial cropping’ and ‘subsistence agriculture’ by 2015. The default background colour is land given to wildlife. Traill & Fisher (2019).

The rate of indigenous woody cover loss following land reform in the lowveld was substantial. Much of this occurred over just one decade; from 2001 to 2010, the rate of woody cover loss in Chiredzi River Conservancy was 7.081 km² per annum, the rate of loss in Savé Valley was 9.797 km² per annum, and in Gonarezhou National Park the rate was 0.806 km² per annum. There was variance around per annum woody cover loss, although it is apparent that much tree cutting occurred over 10 years. The cumulative loss or full loss of native woody plant cover from 2000 to 2015 was 75.47 km² in Chiredzi River Conservancy, 107.316 km² for Savé Valley and 9.542 km² in Gonarezhou National Park. Note that ‘woody cover’ here is a different parameter to ‘area of land under subsistence agriculture’; woody cover was defined as canopy closure for all vegetation greater than 5 m in height and estimated quantitatively through remote sensing.

Indigenous trees on lowveld protected areas appear to have been removed for a number of reasons; ostensibly cleared to make way for fields, much of the timber would likely have been used as fuelwood, or sold informally. Land reform was typified by forest clearance for access to arable land, fuelwood, pole construction and wood sale. Tree removal appeared therefore to serve two purposes; fuelwood and timber sales to augment incomes, and land clearance for agriculture, to provide further diversification of income. Income generation appears to have been a driver of the illegal harvest of vertebrate fauna resident on these protected areas prior to land reform; previous studies have found bushmeat hunting in the lowveld to be conducted by unemployed young men, who used the funds generated from the sale of bushmeat to buy food.

Land reform in Zimbabwe was in part driven by political expediency, and the lack of planning regards resettlement of people on lowveld protected areas, and the lack of subsequent support, perhaps played a role in subsequent deforestation and widespread illegal harvest, as well as the spread of disease such as foot-and-mouth.

Land reform is known to have a negative impact on biological diversity, in part because the process of transformation from single-large to multiple-small worked plots brings people into direct conflict with wildlife. The process in the Zimbabwean lowveld has also restricted the development of wildlife corridors in the region, linking protected areas to the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.

Proponents of reform have rightly indicated that poor, marginalised people exercised agency under land reform, and forced a shift from ‘exclusionary governance to pro-people democratic governance of Forest Protected Areas and other resources’. The conservation movement is increasingly aware that protected areas impose an opportunity cost on poor, rural people and that humanitarian needs must be taken into account. Zimbabwean conservationists have, to their credit, largely pioneered devolved community-based conservation, and there has been past success in the country through the CAMPFIRE programme. A number of studies published over the past decade discuss ways forward for lowveld protected areas, or conservancies and poor communities now resettled in the area. and Traill and Fisher feel they have little to add to that debate, other than to offer their support for community-based conservation. They are however somewhat surprised that much of the discussion around land reform in Zimbabwe implicitly assumes a long-term continuation of a large, rural-based populace, and not an urbanised, industrialised future. There also appears to be little discussion around alternative farming techniques that could alleviate land pressures.

See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/12/a-hunger-for-hongmu-environmental.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2018/06/suspected-foot-and-mouth-outbreak-in.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2015/06/monitoring-water-quality-in-south.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2015/05/northern-mozambiques-critically.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2014/11/the-impact-of-invasive-native-shrub-on.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2014/08/arsenic-levels-in-soil-around-cattle.html
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22 comments:

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  12. I am really happy that i have been cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of Dr OSAGIE , i have been suffering from this disease for the past 3 years and 4 mouth without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 5days which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases so you can to mail him on drosagiesolutiontemple@gmail.com OR
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    Thank you for your time

    ReplyDelete
  13. Dr Moses Herbal medicine is a good remedy for herpes simplex virus cure. i want to inform the public how i was cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by DR Moses, i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Familiar, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about how DR Moses cured them, when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine via UPS ( Delivery service ) to me and i drank it, seriously it worked for me, am a free person now without any problem, my HERPES result came out negative... Contact him if you need his assistance email him ehichioyaspelltemple@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +2348057508654 

    ReplyDelete
  14. Herpes Virus is a terrible virus, if not for my Husband and the help of the great Dr.Alabi my life would have been a mess! I was diagnose with Herpes virus in 2012, my husband encouraged me, and told me not to lose hope, I manage to give birth to a baby Boy who was free from this virus, and my Husband was always there for me! One day he came to me and told me that he have found a man who can cure me. Base on scientist, they said there is no cure for Herpes virus; he told me that he has seen many testimonies about him on the internet. We decided to contact him, we filled his Herbal home form, and he asked us to buy some local root and herbs items which we did! and he prepared for me a herbal medicine and 14 days later he asked me to go for medical test, faithfully hopefully i went for the medical test, and Behold, I was cured, from this virus and its was not found in my Body system again... My Dear Husband and my Father Dr.Alabi, God will surely bless the both of you, till the end of time, in Jesus name.. If you have any problem kindly contact Dr Alabi via his email (Dr.Alabiherbalhome@yahoo.com) or whatsapp him on +1{810}4982897 for any kind of help......

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. How can I explain this to the world that there is a man who can cure HERPES, I was diagnosed for the past 5 mouth I have being into HERPES since 5 mouth, so I decide to look for help in the internet then I found a post write about this great man called DR. INIBOKU , people say good thing about him that this man have cured, a lot of people in the internet, him has power's to cure HSV1 AND HSV2 I don’t believe that there is a cure for Herpes Simplex Virus because though there is no cure for herpes that what I have in mind HERPES had no cure well , my HERPES is negative through the using of herbal cured of DR INIBOKU, I contacted this man for help because of what i see in the internet. if you need his cured just email him now on drinibokuspelltemple@gmail.com , thank you DR. i will never stop shearing you testimony DR. INIBOKU. him Can as well CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-1, HIV/AIDS, 2, Diseases of the hear 3, Malignant tumors 4. Cardiovascular diseases 5. Diabetes mellifluous 6.Influenza and pneumonia 7.Alzheimer's disease 8. hsv1 - hsv2. If you need LOVE SPELL. E.T.C contact him drinibokuspelltemple@gmail.com or you whatsapp him on +23490759186346  

      Delete
  15. Hello viewers, I'm here to shear my testimony on how Dr.Azu cured my herpes virus/hpv with his herbal medicine.I do not have much to say but with all my life i will for ever be grateful to him and God Almighty for using Dr.Azu to reach when me i thought it was all over, today i am happy with my life again after the medical doctor have confirmed my HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS / HPV of 3 years is gone,i have never in my life believed that HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS could be cured by herbal medicine. so i want to use this means to reach other persons who have this disease by testifying the power of  Dr.Azu that all hope is not lost yet, try and contact him by any means for any kind of disease. Thanks once again Dr.Azu for your marvelous work may God continue to bless you. You can also reach him today via email: dr.azuherbalhome@gmail.com or +2347087313747,.

    ReplyDelete
  16. MY FIBROID CURE TESTIMONY THROUGH THE HELP OF DR. ISAH     I am here to appreciate Dr. ISAH for using his herbal Remedies to cure my fibroid Disease, for 4 years i have been living with this Disease and it has been giving me a lot of challenges, i was so Worried because i have be taking Different Drugs to be able to cure this Fibroid but all my effort was in vain. one morning i Was Browsing through the Internet When i saw several Testimonies about Dr.  ISAH  Who have cured several people from fibroid Diseases Using his herbal Medicines and Immediately i contacted Dr. ISAH on his email: drisahjohnson@gmail.com   i told him about my Fibroid Disease and he told me not to worry anymore that i will be cured from this fibroid, he advise me and gave me instruction and which i rightly followed, So he prepare his herbal medicines for me and sent it through DHL Courier Delivery Service  Which i used for 1 month and Everything Was like a Dream to me and my fibroid  was Completely cured. As I am writing this Testimony on this site I am 5 Months Pregnant with my Second Child..... all thanks to Doctor Isah for Restoring my life back   you can also contact Dr. Isah through his email or whatsapp. WHATSAPP:  +2349065613964 EMAIL:  drisahjohnson@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  17. Thank God for using Dr Ojamo to get me cured from Herpes virus
    The disease appeared at the age of 38, with no hope of a cure from the hospitals i have went to, I thought my life have come to an end, until a friend of mine told me about Dr, Ojamo who treats all Kinds of
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    ReplyDelete

  18. I came on the Internet i saw great testimony about DR Voke on how he was able to cure someone from HERPES, and any disease this person said great things about this man, and advice we contact him for any problem that DR Voke can be of help, well i decided to give him a try, he requested for my information which i sent to him, and he told me he was going to prepare for me a healing portion, which he wanted me to take for days, and after which i should go back to the hospital for check up, well after taking all the treatment sent to me by DR Voke i went back to the Hospital for check up, and now i have been confirmed HERPES Negative, friends you can reach Dr voke on any treatment for any Disease, reach him on _________________________________[doctorvoke@gmail.com]

    ReplyDelete
  19. Herpes Cure Testimony I was diagnose with Genital Herpes for the past 6 years and I have been searching for cure. I have several outbreaks on my back and it really affected me morally, I read a testimony on this platform of a lady from Nevada who was cured from Diabetes with doctor Iyoha Herbal medicine including the doctor official email address. I contacted the doctor through his email, after much discussion and few questions he prepared the Herbal medicine and asked for my address which I received the Herbal medicine 3 days later and with his prescription I drank the Herbal medicine for 3 weeks. After concluding the herbal medicine I went for test and my IgG result was confirmed Negative with no trace of the virus on my blood. Contact doctor Iyoha and be cured his email: driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com or call him +1 4073379869 He has Herbal cure for Diabetes, Hepatitis, Heart diseases. Hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, Strokes and Liver disease.

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  20. I can believe is possible that HIV can be cure what a great man he have done it for me also I never believe all this comment and post about him, I was very sick, I am HIV positive over 10years, just last year I keep reading the testimony about this man named Dr.iniboku they said that the man is so powerful he have cured to different diseases, I keep monitor the post of some people about this man and I found out this man is I contacted him for help because I was having such problem this man reply to my email after some hours, I inform he about my problem that I have this virus for 10years now this man said that I should not worry and I should not disappoint him, what he about to do for me now is just a gift from his gods and his father’s that I should regard him if am cured I should write the true about him, I said no problem because I never have the believe that I will be cured someday but thanks god for my life for curing me through this man this man ask for my details which i send for him, and he said that he want to have some consultation on it how to get me cure I wait for his respond this man reply me back after some minute he said that I need to provide so thing need for the curing I try and do so after everything is done I found out I was again my strength back my tissue start developing he ask me to go for hospital test I did and I found out there was no HIV found in my body again what a miracle thanks doctor for help me out from this illness i will continue doing this according to my promise if you need his help just contact him on via email at drinibokupelltemple@gmail.com or at via whatsapp number +2347059186346.

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