Sunday, 2 February 2020

Evidence for predation of soft-bodied Cephalopods by Pterosaurs from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone of southern Germany.

Constraining the diets of extinct taxa is vital for understanding predator-prey relationships, reconstructing extinct food webs and for understanding the evolution of multi-trophic interactions. Fossilised gut and throat contents, known as content fossils, are perhaps the most renowned line of direct evidence for extinct predator-prey interactions. These fossils have greatly increased the known dietary ranges of many extinct clades, including carnivory in Mesozoic Mammals, and piscivory in Theropod Dinosaurs. However, well-preserved content fossils are extremely rare and there is an inbuilt bias towards preservation of ‘harder’ items (e.g. scales and shells) and towards items consumed immediately prior to death. Other direct lines of evidence used to infer diets include coprolites, regurgitalites, tooth marks from supposed feeding events, healed bite traces from failed predation attempts, (which sometimes contain embedded teeth) and the preservation of predators and prey together as a result of fatal encounters. These types of evidence are slightly more abundant than content fossils and are also useful for gaining unique insights into the foraging and feeding behaviours and the habitat preferences of both predators and prey. For example, the presence of bone regrowth in the damaged caudal neural spines in the Hadrosaurid Dinosaur Edmontosaurus has been interpreted as evidence of active predation by the large Theropod Dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex and that Tyrannosaurus rex, consequently, was not an obligate scavenger. Inferring the taxonomic identities of predators and prey from these types of evidence, however, can be difficult.

In a paper published in the journal Scientific Reports on 27 January 2020, René Hoffmann of the Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik at Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Jordan Bestwick of the Centre for Palaeobiology Research at the University of Leicester, G Berndt of Berlin, Roman Berndt of Dortmund, Dirk Fuchs of the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, and Christian Klug of the Paläontologisches Institut und Museum at Universität Zürich, present evidence for a failed predation attempt on a soft-bidied Cephalopod by a Pterosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone of southern Germany.

Well-preserved evidence of predator-prey relationships is primarily known from Konservat-Lagerstätten (fossil sites of exceptional preservation) as rapid specimen burial prevents carcass damage from scavengers and/or anoxic conditions facilitates soft-tissue preservation. For example, the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Archipelago, Germany, contains lagoons with low oxygen concentrations and high salinities, which enabled the phosphatisation of soft tissues. From these Late Jurassic plattenkalks (very finely grained limestones chemically precipitated in a stratified water), numerous Coleoids with preserved phosphatised and carbonised soft tissues such as the arms, fins, gills, digestive tract, ink sac and duct, cephalic cartilage with eye capsules plus statocysts, stomach content, mantle and spermatophores have been reported. Lagerstätten such as Solnhofen therefore yield primary data, which allow inferences on the diets and ecological roles of soft-bodied organisms and ultimately on ancient ecosystems and foodwebs. This is usually impossible in fossils from other deposits.

One such clade are Mesozoic Coleoid Cephalopods, which are related to modern Squid and Sepiids (Cuttlefish). These fossils are known almost entirely from Konservat-Lagerstätten (conservation deposits). Mesozoic Coleoids, such as Plesioteuthis, have repeatedly been inferred to have been active predators based on several lines of independent evidence. These lines of reasoning include (i) fossilised stomach contents containing Ammonoids and Fish remains, (ii) a slender body, Squid-like mantle and four fins that presumaby enabled fast swimming and provided a good manoeuvrability and (iii) other predator-prey associations. However, direct evidence of extinct Coleoids as prey has, until now, been rare.

Hoffman et al. document the first case of an exceptionally preserved Coleoid Cephalopod, Plesioteuthis, from the Solnhofen Archipelago that is preserved with an associated Pterosaur tooth. They examine the ecological relationship between soft-bodied Coleoid Cephalopods as prey and Pterosaurs, such as Rhamphorhynchus, as a non-marine predator of marine organisms. Hoffmann et al. describe the material in detail and discuss their taphonomy and the ecological aspects of both animals. This includes possible feeding behaviours of Rhamphorhynchus and the likely habitat of Plesioteuthis.

Plesioteuthis subovata from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Archipelago. An adult specimen, 28 cm long, preserved with ink sac and duct, arm-head complex, well-preserved mantle musculatures (transverse striation) and a Pterosaur tooth. (B) Close-up of the 19 mm long, slightly curved Rhamphorhynchus muensteri tooth crown under normal light. (C) Ultraviolet light reveals that the tooth apex is partially covered with now phosphatised mantle tissue. (D) Posterior part of the specimen with faint imprints probably representing a terminal fin, but ultraviolet light provides no evidence of fin musculature (E). The posterior mantle margin is incomplete and a straight structure with a double keel typical for Plesioteuthis subovata provides evidence of the gladius. J Härer in Hoffmann et al. (2020).

The specimen described is an Octobrachian Cephalopod Plesioteuthis subovata, preserving a Pterosaur tooth, thought to be of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri, stuck in its phosphatised mantle musculature. The specimen is kept in the Paläontologisches Institut und Museum at the Universität Zürich, Switzerland. It was collected by G Berndt and Roman Berndt in 2012 from the Solnhofen Archipelago (Blumenberg near Eichstätt) in southeastern-Germany from the lower Tithonian (Late Jurassic) Altmühltal Formation (Hybonoticeras hybonotum zone). The specimen was prepared by Udo Resch (Eichstätt) and G Berndt.

The Plesioteuthis subovata pecimen has a total body length of 285 mm, 188 mm of which comprises the mantle (gladius). The strongly flattened specimen is seen in ventral view, i.e., the dorsally located gladius is covered by the muscular mantle, whose circular muscles are visible as fine transversal striae perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis. In several Konservat-Lagerstätten, such as the Posidonia Shale, Oxford Clay and Solnhofen Archipelago, the mantle musculature is commonly phosphatised and preserved as whitish to brownish apatite.

The arm-head complex is clearly demarcated from the mantle. As usual in the Solnhofen plattenkalks, a sparitic calcitic concretion is formed near the buccal mass, destroying fine anatomical detail. Musculature remains of the two arm stubs are preserved anterior to this septaria. Anterior-most imprints suggest a total arm length of about 37 mm, indicating an arm length to mantle length ratio of 0.20. Neither suckers nor cirri are visible.

The well-preserved mantle musculature shows the characteristic transverse striation and the elongate, formerly cigar-shaped mantle. The ink sac and duct are visible as bulges in the mantle. Fossilised black ink can be seen in a small hole where the phosphatised mantle broke off. Musculature of the ventral funnel covering the ink duct is also preserved. The faint imprints at the right posterior end of the specimen probably represent a terminal fin, but ultraviolet light provides no evidence of fin musculature (proportions and position support this interpretation). The posterior mantle margin is incomplete and a straight structure with a double keel provides evidence of the gladius.

The cigar-shaped mantle and the short arms are typical for Plesioteuthis  prisca. However, in The cigar-shaped mantle and the short arms are typical for Plesioteuthis prisca. However, in Plesioteuthis prisca the median keel is unipartite in contrast to the present specimen the median keel is unipartite in contrast to Hoffmann et al.'s specimen. Such a bipartite keel is typical for Plesioteuthis. subovata. Plesioteuthis subovata is one of the rarest Coleoids of the Solnhofen Archipelago, thus underlining the uniqueness of this fossil. In Plesioteuthis, almost all non-mineralised tissues and organs have been preserved in at least one specimen. Several anatomical details (e.g., eight arms, uniserial suckers without sucker rings, shape of the jaws, presence of four fins) suggest that Mesozoic gladius-bearing Coleoids unambiguously belong to the Octobrachian lineage,


Cephalopod gladius and Pterosaur skull reconstructions. (A) Plesioteuthis prisca with an unipartite median keel. (B) Plesioteuthis subovata with a bipartite median keel. (C) Rhamphorhynchus skull with upper and lower jaw dentition (black arrows indicate potential position of the broken off tooth that became stuck in the Plesioteuthis mantle tissue). Hoffmann et al. (2020).

The tooth perforated the left flank of the anterior mantle margin. The tip of the tooth is stuck in the mantle margin (which is somewhat stiffer than the rest of the mantle) but has probably not reached the internal organs. There is no evidence of additional injuries. The embedded tooth is approximately 19 mm long (only the crown is preserved) and 3 mm wide at its base (height/width ratio; 6.33). The tooth is slender, laterally compressed, and gently recurved, especially close to the pointed tip. Much of the enamel near the tip of the tooth is covered by phosphatised mantle. However, the brown patches around the centre of the tooth, revealed by ultraviolet light, may represent enamel. The tooth’s dentine is light brown in colour in the basal half of the tooth under white light and is white under ultraviolet light. No serrations, carinae or longitudinal ridges are visible, but thin longitudinal cracks in the dentine are visible.

A large number of taxa from the Solnhofen Archipelago, including Fish and Marine Reptiles, supposedly fed on aquatic organisms such as Cephalopods. The conical, slender and recurved shape of the tooth excludes several groups of Fish and Reptiles as possible culprits. Holostean and Pycnodontiform Fish (both Actinopterygii), for example, both possess rounded, hemispherical teeth. Chondrichthyans, (Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras) possess either serrated, multi-cusped teeth or flattened tooth-plates. The tooth morphology also excludes aquatic Rhynchocephalian Reptiles such as Pleurosaurus, which possess triangular, antero-posteriorly elongate teeth.

Other Marine Reptiles such as Pliosaurs, Ichthyosaurs and Metriorhynchid as well as Teleosaurid Crocodyliformes have conical teeth. However, the teeth of most of these reptiles display longitudinal ridges, which are not developed in our specimen. The relatively high preservation quality of the dentine indicates that the absence of ridges in our specimen is primary rather than an artifact. The teeth of some Metriorhynchid and Teleosaurid Crocodyliformes lack longitudinal ridges. These teeth still differ because they generally exhibit height/ width ratios of around 2–3, which are much stouter than our specimen, although they are slender compared to other Crocodyliformes. This, in combination with the great agreement of its shape with that of Pterosaur teeth, support a Pterosaur as the likely culprit. Of the known Solnhofen pterosaurs, the tooth shape is most similar to that of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri. Rhamphorhynchus teeth usually have well-developed carinae along the anterior and posterior margins, but Hoffmann et al.'s specimen is embedded laterally and thus, such carinae would be obscured by the surrounding mantle tissue. The possible enamel-dentine boundary around the tooth centre contrasts slightly with Rhamphorhynchus teeth where the boundary has been described around one-third of the way down the tooth from the tip. However, the upper third of the tooth is covered by the Cephalopod mantle and thus prevents conclusive identification of the enamel-dentine boundary (this would also be difficult to see in CT scans since both the tooth and the surrounding Cephalopod mantle is composed of apatite). Based on its size, height-to-width ratio and curvature, the tooth was most likely from the anterior to middle region of the upper or lower jaw. This also makes sense from ecological and mechanical points of view as the anterior teeth are the most likely to come into regular contact with food items and are subjected to higher bending movements while biting struggling prey. These teeth therefore have the highest likelihood of breakage during feeding.

Furthermore, the nature of the Rhamphorhynchus fossil record allow Hoffman et al. to estimate the likely ontogenetic stage of the perpetrator. The teeth of hatchling and immature juveniles are very small and straight, while the teeth of the largest adults have a lower height-to-width ratio and slightly blunt tips. Accordingly, the tooth stuck in the Coleoid likely belonged to a large, osteologically mature individual (one with over a metre wingspan).

Interpreting ecological relationships between extinct taxa based on the spatial association of specimens can be flawed if taphonomic biases, such as post-mortem specimen transport, are not taken into consideration. However, abiotic explanations for the association of Plesioteuthis and Rhamphorhynchus can be ruled out for several reasons: (1) As reflected in the perfectly horizontally bedded sediments, the lagoons of the Solnhofen Archipelago are generally regarded as a low energy depositional environment barring storm events. Specimens are therefore unlikely to have been transported far along the sea floor. (2) The absence of a root suggests that the tooth broke off at the crown-root boundary. (3) The tooth penetrated the Plesioteuthis mantle, which is highly unlikely to have occurred via transport in such a low energy depositional environment.

Hoffmann et al. therefore conclude that the Rhamphorhynchus tooth became associated with the Plesioteuthis through the Pterosaur biting the Cephalopod. At least one Rhamphorhynchus tooth broke during this interaction, which resulted in the Plesioteuthis escaping with a tooth remaining stuck in its mantle and an unsuccessful predation attempt.

Reconstruction of the hunting behaviour of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri, flying close to the water surface to grab soft-bodied Cephalopods such as Plesioteuthis subovata that lived in the uppermost part of the water column. Christian Klug & and Beat Scheffold in Hoffmann et al. (2020).

Direct evidence of pterosaurs as predators is currently restricted to fossil gut and throat contents. Fish, Crustaceans and Tetrapods have been identified from stomach contents from several Pterosaur taxa. Such stomach contents are most often preserved with Rhamphorhynchus and confidently identified remains are currently limited to Fish. A coprolite assigned to Rhamphorhynchus was interpreted to have contained Coleoid arm hooklets, although this interpretation has since been challenged. Speculative cases of attempted Pterosaur feeding involve Odonatan Insects (Dragonflies) from the Solnhofen Archipelago with damaged wings. Hoffmann et al.'s specimen therefore provides the first direct evidence of a Pterosaur-prey interaction that did not result in prey consumption. It should be noted that until additional similar specimens are found, it remains impossible to rule out that the Pterosaur misinterpreted the Cephalopod as a different food item. Nevertheless, the specimen is important for understanding ecological interactions between Solnhofen taxa, and it is conceivable that Pterosaurs were possibly at least somewhat opportunistic in their choice of prey. Hoffmann et al. also think that this specimen more likely reflects predatory behaviour from Rhamphorhynchus rather than scavenging behaviour. Coleoid Cephalopods have been experimentally shown to decay rapidly after death as the dermis ruptures within the first 24–48 hours after death, which further facilitates the decay of the internal tissues. The well-preserved nature of the musculature and head-arm complex in the specimen indicates that it was buried soon after death rather than floating at the water surface for a prolonged period of time where it would have been exposed to scavengers. Moreover, it is unlikely that Pterosaur dived down to the anoxic bottom water layers to scavenge on carcasses. However, Hoffmann et al. are currently unable to say whether the Plesioteuthis died as a result of the Pterosaur attack or survived for some time with the broken tooth stuck in its mantle.

There is a general lack of agreement concerning Pterosaur feeding behaviour. In the case of Hoffmann et al.'s specimen, some conclusions on behaviours can be drawn with some reservation. Accepting that the Pterosaur attacked the Coleoid near the water surface, this implies that these Cephalopods lived primarily in the upper part of the water column of the Solnhofen Archipelago. Several Rhamphorhynchus fossils have been described where a specimen is entangled within the jaws of the predatory Fish,  Aspidorhynchus. This encounter was thought likely to have happened near or at the water surface in order for an aquatic animal to successfully catch an aerial animal with its jaws, indirectly corroborating Hoffmannn et al.'s suggestion that the Pterosaur-Cephalopod interaction occurred near the water surface. Skim-feeding has been suggested for Rhamphorhynchus, but has experimentally been shown to have been too energy expensive. Rhamphorhynchus was therefore more likely to have fed on aquatic prey by grabbing prey whilst on the wing just above the water surface, or while floating on the water surface.

Hoffmann et al. describe an adult specimen of the extremely rare Octobrachian Coleoid Cephalopod Plesioteuthis subovata preserved with a tooth of the Pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus muensteri in its mantle tissue. We present this association as the first direct evidence of a predator-prey interaction between Pterosaurs and Cephalopods. This interaction Probably took place at or near the water surface. A scavenging feeding mode for Rhamphorhynchus is doubtful because the Pterosaur is unlikely to have dived to the highly dangerous anoxic sediment floor to access carrion. It is also unlikely that tooth breakage would occur while consuming the soft decaying mantle of a Coleoid carcass. Most likely, the tooth broke off in the Plesioteuthis mantle when the Pterosaur attacked and the Cephalopod tried to escape. High mechanical stress was exerted to the base of the teeth that were in direct contact with the Cephalopod. This fractured at least one tooth, which remained stuck in the mantle. It is impossible to assess whether the Plesioteuthis died as a result of the Pterosaur attack or survived with the broken tooth in its mantle. In addition to revealing Cephalopods as a likely part of the Rhamphorhynchus diet, this fossil provides evidence that Plesioteuthis commonly lived in the upper part of the water column where it was accessible to Pterosaurs.

See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/10/nurhachius-luei-new-species-of.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/10/eromangateuthis-soniae-large-fossil.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/10/ferrodraco-lentoni-new-species-of.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/08/washington-woman-hospitalised-by.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/07/royal-canadian-mounted-police.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/06/architeuthis-dux-giant-squid-captured.html
Follow Sciency Thoughts on Facebook.

14 comments:

  1. Assalamualaikum wr.wb,saya pak arianto pekerjaan saya sehari-harinya cuma seorang TKI pembantu di negara tentangga yaitu di malaysia yang pendapatannya tidak seberapa dan suami saya cuma kerja di kelapa sawit,buat biaya anak sekolah aja tidak cukup di kampung apalagi untuk mencukupi kebutuhan hidup keluarga sehari-harinya dan suatu malam saya buka internet dan tidak sengaja saya temukan number HP EYANG WORO MANGGOLO langsung saya telpon beliau dan menceritakan semua keluahan saya dan akhirya di kasih ANGKA GHAIB 6D benar-benar tembus dengan adanya EYANG semua hutang-hutang saya di kampung sudah lunas semua ,bahkan sekarang saya sudah buka usaha WARUNG MAKAN di malaysia!!! sekali lagi saya mengucapkan banyak terimah kasih kepada EYANG WORO MANGGOLO atas bantuan Eyang kini impian saya selama ini sudah jadi kenyataan dan berkat bantuan EYANG WORO MANGGOLO pula yang telah memberikan angka ghaib hasil ritual,beliau kepada saya yaitu 6D dan alhamdulillah telah berhasil memenangkan 5x berturut-turut tembus .
    Solusi yang tepat jangan anda putus aza karna EYANG akan membantu anda semua dengan Angka ritwal/GHOIB apa bila anda butuh angka togel 2D-3D-4D-5D-6D, dijamin 100% jebol.
    Apabila ada waktu silahkan/SMS EYANG WORO MANGGOLO di number 082-391-772-208 .
    DAN BELIAU JUGA BISA MENBANTU ANDA TUK PUTARAN YANG ADA DI BAWA.

    angka;GHOIB: singapur
    angka;GHOIB: hongkong
    angka;GHOIB; malaysia
    angka;GHOIB; toto magnum 4d
    angka"GHOIB; laos…
    angka"GHOIB; macau
    angka"GHOIB; sidney
    angka"GHOIB: vietnam
    angka"GHOIB: korea
    angka"GHOIB: kudalari

    sekali lagi makasih yaa KI waktu itu saya cuma bermodal uang cuma 300 ribu dan akhirnya saya menang banyak dan berkat angka gaib hasil ritual KI saya sudah buka usaha Kini kehidupan keluarga saya jauh lebih baik dari sebelumnya,bagi anda yang ingin seperti saya silahkan HUB/SMS EYANG WORO MANGGOLO di number 082-391-772-208 insya allah beliau akan menbantu anda semua.trimakasih

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION ,
      the reason why most people are finding it difficult
      to enlarge Penis is because they bedlieve on medical
      report, drugs and medical treatment which is not
      helpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge your Penis permanently
      Contact Dr Olu via Email : Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com or via WhatsApp : +2348140654426 for Natural root and herbal remedies put together to help you get Enlarge and Erect healthy.
      Thank you.



































      Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION ,
      the reason why most people are finding it difficult
      to enlarge Penis is because they bedlieve on medical
      report, drugs and medical treatment which is not
      helpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge your Penis permanently
      Contact Dr Olu via Email : Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com or via WhatsApp : +2348140654426 for Natural root and herbal remedies put together to help you get Enlarge and Erect healthy.
      Thank you.



















































      Delete
    2. Hello everyone, am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr olu a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I adverse you to contact Dr on his email (drolusolutionhome@gmail.com) ) you or contact on whatsapp number +2348140654426 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i Dr olu is also specialized on obey m breast and boobs enlargement i advise you to contact him for help    































      Hello everyone, am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr olu a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I adverse you to contact Dr on his email (drolusolutionhome@gmail.com) ) you or contact on whatsapp number +2348140654426 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i Dr olu is also specialized on obey m breast and boobs enlargement i advise you to contact him for help    













      Delete
    3. Hello everyone i Am williams pater and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,olu I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,OLU and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drolusolutionhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR OLU for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil  drolusolutionhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348140654426 ] 

      Delete
  2. Wow! this is Amazing! Do you know your hidden name meaning ? Click here to find your hidden name meaning

    ReplyDelete
  3. HOW I GOT MY LOAN FROM THIS GREAT COMPANY

    Hello my dear people, I am Linda McDonald, currently living in Austin Texas, USA. I am a widow at the moment with three kids and i was stuck in a financial situation in April 2018 and i needed to refinance and pay my bills. I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success, and most banks declined my credit ,do not full prey to those hoodlums at there that call them self-money lender they are all scam , all they want is your money and you well not hear from them again they have done it to me twice before I met Mr. David Wilson the most interesting part of it is that my loan was transfer to me within 74hours so I will advise you to contact Mr. David if you are interested in getting loan and you are sure you can pay him back on time you can contact him via email……… (davidwilsonloancompany4@gmail.com) No credit check, no cosigner with just 2% interest rate and better repayment plans and schedule if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan without collateral then contact Mr. David Wilson today for your loan

    They offer all kind of categories of loan they

    Short term loan (5_10years)
    Long term loan (20_40)
    Media term loan (10_20)
    They offer loan like
    Home loan............., Business loan........ Debt loan.......
    Student loan.........., Business startup loan
    Business loan......., Company loan.............. etc
    Email..........( davidwilsonloancompany4@gmail.com)
    When it comes to financial crisis and loan then David Wilson loan financial is the place to go please just tell him I Mrs. Linda McDonald direct you Good Luck.......................

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello everybody, thanks to Dr LOSA the spell caster i am from USA, i don't just Know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is
      a cure for HIV, my son have been suffering from HIV since last
      three years but today i am happy that he is cure from it with
      the herbal medicine of Dr DR LOSA the great healer,i was
      browsing the INTERNET searching for help when i came across a
      testimony shared by someone on how Dr LOSA cure his herpes
      i was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr
      LOSA brought a smile to my son face with his herbal
      medicine. i am so much happy today that we have someone like
      this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly
      contact this great healer on his email address: (dr.losaherbahome@gmail
      .com) please sir keep your good work cause there are people
      out there who is in need of your healing medicine.once more
      email him now: (dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com) you can call him OR WHATSSAPP HIM
      +2349056464736
      DOCTOR LOSA CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-
      1. HIV/AIDS
      2. HERPES
      3. CANCER
      4. ALS
      5. Hepatitis
      6 Diabetes
      7 LOVE SPELL
      8 IF YOU NEED YOUR EX LOVER BACK TO LOVE YOU AGAIN.






































      Hello everybody, thanks to Dr LOSA the spell caster i am from USA, i don't just Know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is
      a cure for HIV, my son have been suffering from HIV since last
      three years but today i am happy that he is cure from it with
      the herbal medicine of Dr DR LOSA the great healer,i was
      browsing the INTERNET searching for help when i came across a
      testimony shared by someone on how Dr LOSA cure his herpes
      i was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr
      LOSA brought a smile to my son face with his herbal
      medicine. i am so much happy today that we have someone like
      this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly
      contact this great healer on his email address: (dr.losaherbahome@gmail
      .com) please sir keep your good work cause there are people
      out there who is in need of your healing medicine.once more
      email him now: (dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com) you can call him OR WHATSSAPP HIM
      +2349056464736
      DOCTOR LOSA CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-
      1. HIV/AIDS
      2. HERPES
      3. CANCER
      4. ALS
      5. Hepatitis
      6 Diabetes
      7 LOVE SPELL
      8 IF YOU NEED YOUR EX LOVER BACK TO LOVE YOU AGAIN.

      Delete
  4. Hello everybody, thanks to Dr LOSA the spell caster i am from USA, i don't just Know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is
    a cure for HIV, my son have been suffering from HIV since last
    three years but today i am happy that he is cure from it with
    the herbal medicine of Dr DR LOSA the great healer,i was
    browsing the INTERNET searching for help when i came across a
    testimony shared by someone on how Dr LOSA cure his herpes
    i was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr
    LOSA brought a smile to my son face with his herbal
    medicine. i am so much happy today that we have someone like
    this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly
    contact this great healer on his email address: (dr.losaherbahome@gmail
    .com) please sir keep your good work cause there are people
    out there who is in need of your healing medicine.once more
    email him now: (dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com) you can call him OR WHATSSAPP HIM
    +2349056464736
    DOCTOR LOSA CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-
    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS
    5. Hepatitis
    6 Diabetes
    7 LOVE SPELL
    8 IF YOU NEED YOUR EX LOVER BACK TO LOVE YOU AGAIN.

    ReplyDelete
  5. DO NOT KEEP YOUR FINANCIAL BURDEN TO YOURSELF CONTACT US NOW FOR ANY KIND OF LOAN AT A LOW INTEREST OF 2%. stevewilsonloanfirm@gmail.com whatsapp: +16673078785


    Our loans are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the service you deserve, Our Loan program is the quickest.

    We give out loan in any currency of your choice {Us Dollar, pounds, Euro, Dinar, etc} and duration of 1 to 30 years to pay back the loan (secure and unsecured).
    Do you need any kind of loan and have low credit score, Have you find it difficult to get loansfrom local banks and other financial institutions? solution to your financial problem is STEVE WILSON LOAN FIRM.

    The terms and conditions are very reasonable and considerate.
    We offer a wide range of financial services which includes: Xmas Loans, Business Loans, Debt Consolidation Loans, Personal Loans, Car loans, Hotel loans, Student loans, Home Refinancing Loans with low interest rate @2% per annul for individuals, companies and corporate bodies.


    Interested applicants should Contact us via email:stevewilsonloanfirm@gmail.com. whatsapp:+16673078785 Apply and be free from financial bondage.

    ReplyDelete
  6. I was diagnosed of herpes virus, I have tried all possible means to get cure but all my effort proved abortive, until a friend of mine introduced me to a herbal doctor called Chief Dr Lucky, who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including herpes virus (Herpes), when i contacted this herbal doctor via his email, he sent me herpes virus herbal medicine via courier service, when i received the herbal medicine he gave me step by step instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed i was totally cured from the virus within 3 weeks of usage. Contact this great herbal doctor today to get your cure. 
    Via Email : chiefdrlucky@gmail.com
    Whats App : +2348132777335
    website : http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/    

    ReplyDelete
  7. I’m so excited because my broken marriage has been restored & my husband is back after he left me and our 2 kids for another woman. After 8 years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. i felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that DR.Osasu can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before,All thanks to DR.Osasu . he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that DR.Osasu real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at:Account:
    drosasu25@gmail.com , you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2347064365391,THANKS TO DR. Osasu

    ReplyDelete
  8. Am Lizzy Dixon from Canada, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Chief He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my husband who left me, When i contacted Chief he cast a love spell for me, and my husband who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. he is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken relationship back. because i am now happy with my husband. To anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, Chief can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his email chiefdrlucky@gmail.com call or add him on whats-app with his phone number +2348132777335 Website: http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/   

    ReplyDelete
  9. Hi guys, if you have been a victim of any binary/ cryptocurrency scam, contact easybinarysolutions@gmail.com they're highly recommendable, and were efficient in getting my initially lost 2btc refunded.

    ReplyDelete
  10. I want to share a testimony of how Dr.Osemuhau herbal mixture cream saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing,and i was also having weak erection problem. I can't make love to my wife and my penis was just too small a full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame to me. My wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor,she never enjoyed sex,i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until when i saw a testimony of how Dr.Osemuhau herbal mixture cream have been helping people regarding their sex life, so i decided to give him a try and to my greatest surprise in less than one week of taking the herbs my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 8 inches and i do not have week erection again. I can make love to my wife longer in bed. And my marriage is now stable,my wife now enjoy me very well in bed. can contact him drosemuhau@gmail.com {) or call or what-apps him through +2348168714427 or  https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Osemuhau-Herbal-Medicine-111115653769173

    ReplyDelete