Sunday, 15 June 2014

A subadult Enantiornithine Bird from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of western Liaoning Province.

The dominant group of Birds during much of the Cretaceous Period were the Enatiornithine, toothed Birds related, but not ancestral, to modern Birds. The largest known species of Enatiornithine from the Early Cretaceous is Pengornis houi, described from a single specimen from the Jiufotang Formation of northern China, part of the Jehol Biota.

In a paper published in the journal Vertebrata PalAsiatica on 21 January 2014, Hu Han of the Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Zhou Zhong-He and Jingmai O'Conner, also of the Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, describe a second specimen of Pengornis from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of western Liaoning Province.

The new specimen is an almost complete articulated skeleton with some feathers intact. It shows strong similarities to Pengornis houi, but is also different enough that were it a second adult specimen, then it would probably be placed within a separate species within the same genus. However, since it is not a completely mature specimen it cannot be confidently asserted that it is a new species either. For this reason it is placed in the genus Pengornis, but not assigned to species level.

Photo of the subadult specimen of Pengornis sp. Hu et al. (2014).


Camera lucida drawing of the subadult specimen of Pengornis sp. 
Abbreviations: as. astragalus; ca. calcaneum; ce. cervical vertebrae; co. coracoid; cv. 
caudal vertebrae; dr. dorsal rib; fe. femur; fi. fibula; ft. feathers; fu. furcula; 
ga. gastralia; hu. humerus; il. ilium; is. ischium; mcI-III. metacarpals I-III
; md. manual digits; mtI-V. metatarsals I-V; pd. pedal digits; pu. pubis; 
py. pygostyle; r. radius; ra. radiale; sc. scapula; se. semilunate carpal
; sk. skull; sr. sternal rib; st. sternum; sy. synsacrum; ti. tibia; tv. thoracic 
vertebrae; u. ulna; ul. ulnare; up. uncinate process. 
Hu et al. (2014).


See also...


The two surviving groups of Archosaurs, Crocodilians and Birds, show very different reproductive strategies.  Crocodilians have paired ovaries and produce large clutches of small eggs, which mature slowly prior to being laid, and make a relatively small investment in parental care. Birds have only a single ovary, a modification not seen in any other Amniote (Reptile or Mammal) with eggs that mature rapidly prior to being laid, smaller clutch sizes and larger eggs, and make a higher level of...




Birds derived from small Theropod Dinosaur ancestors in the Middle Jurassic, and appear to have reached similar levels of diversity in the Cretaceous to that seen today. However the dominant group of Birds in the Cretaceous were the Enatiornithines, a group of toothed Birds related to but not ancestral to modern Birds (Ornithuromorpha), which died out in the end Cretaceous extinction event.



Discovered in the 1860s, Archaeopteryx had a unique combination of features, including a long, feathery tail, that marked it out as distinctive, intermediate between a Dinosaur and a Bird, which sealed Archaeopteryx's status as the First Bird. While it remained unique in this way for a lone time, recent years have seen a number of new specimens of Long-tailed Birds, suggesting this was a distinct group of animals that...

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    Email: markkent5050@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  23. I have a provider who is ready, willing and able of delivering banking instruments (BG/SBLC) for lease which can be used in all forms of projects. Our bank instrument can be used as collateral to seek for loans from different banks of choice and can be used to engage into ppp trading.


    For contacting purpose:

    Contact : Mr. SIVAJOTHI GNANATHEEVAM
    Email: leasingmandate@gmail.com
    Skype ID: leasingmandate

    ReplyDelete
  24. We are pleased to introduce ourselves as one of the leading Mandates/Agents working with world’s most reliable and reputed providers and sellers of all types of FINANCIAL services and solutions.We provide Worldwide project financing, Loans,BG,SBLC,MTN,POF,LC,SKR Discounting,Project Funding,Letter of credit, and lots more for investors
    If you are interested contact us immediately by Email or skype

    Name:Herceg Andras Lajos
    Email:halfunding.advisory@gmail.com
    Skype:halfunding.advisory1@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  25. We are pleased to introduce ourselves as one of the leading Mandates/Agents working with world’s most reliable and reputed providers and sellers of all types of FINANCIAL services and solutions.We provide Worldwide project financing, Loans,BG,SBLC,MTN,POF,LC,SKR Discounting,Project Funding,Letter of credit, and lots more for investors
    If you are interested contact us immediately by Email or skype

    Name:Herceg Andras Lajos
    Email:halfunding.advisory@gmail.com
    Skype:halfunding.advisory1@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  26. We can help facilitate the financial service bank instrument SBLC /BG, We remain the best financial consulting company with years of experience in the international and local finance market.

    We have become the hallmark of excellent service in this industry with trusted and genuine FCA registered SBLC Providers who have truly succeeded in creating significant value for all clients and brokers involved in leasing or purchasing sblc .

    We issue from Top rated world Banks and also work with brokers and agents with 100% healthy commissions paid on every deal.

    Leasing SBLC : 4% +2%

    Purchasing SBLC : 32% +2%


    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:

    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC)

    2. Total Face Value : Please inform us

    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC, Barclays London or Deutsche Bank Frankfurt or any Top 25 WEB

    4. Age: One Year, One Day

    5. Leasing / Selling SBLC / BG

    6. Delivery: SWIFT MT799/MT760.

    7. Payment: MT-103.

    8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.



    All relevant business information will be provided upon request and we are ready to forward to you the DOA/CONTRACT of work once you inform us if you will be Leasing or Purchasing.


    Best Regards

    NAME;Fred Stones
    E MAIL;premiumfinanceserviceltd@gmail.com .skype:fredforrealasurance403

    ReplyDelete
  27. Are you an individual businessman or a business organisation that wishes to expand in business ??, we offer financial instrument such as BGs, SBLCs,MTNs, LCs, CDs and others on lease and sales at a rate of 4%+2% of the face value and reasonable conditionfrom a genuine provider. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs as well as in signatory project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication and any other project(s) etc.

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    With our financial/bank instrument you can establish line of credit with your bank and/or secure loan for your projects in which our bank instrument will serve collateral in your bank to fund your project.

    We deliver with time and precision as set forth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable and we work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this instrument can be monetized on your behalf for upto 100% funding. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request.
    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!

    If Interested kindly contact me via

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    serious enquiry

    BG & SBLC For Lease and Purchase 100% protected.

    ReplyDelete
  28. Are you an individual businessman or a business organisation that wishes to expand in business ??, we offer financial instrument such as BGs, SBLCs,MTNs, LCs, CDs and others on lease and sales at a rate of 4%+2% of the face value and reasonable conditionfrom a genuine provider. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs as well as in signatory project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication and any other project(s) etc.

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    With our financial/bank instrument you can establish line of credit with your bank and/or secure loan for your projects in which our bank instrument will serve collateral in your bank to fund your project.

    We deliver with time and precision as set forth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable and we work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this instrument can be monetized on your behalf for upto 100% funding. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request.
    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!

    If Interested kindly contact me via

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    serious enquiry

    BG & SBLC For Lease and Purchase 100% protected.

    ReplyDelete
  29. Finding a genuine provider of financial instrument is very

    challenging but we are certified Financial Instrument providers in

    United Kingdom. Presently, we only focus on BG/SBLC for Lease and

    Sale transactions. However, our Lease BG/SBLC is 4+2% and Sale at

    32+2%.

    Should you find this interesting and acceptable? Kindly, contact us

    and we shall review and respond with draft Contract/MOU within

    48hrs maximum.

    Please request for full procedure details if interested.

    For further inquiry contact:
    James Raymond
    Skype ID:James119@tutanota.com
    Email:jamesraymond@tutanota.com

    ReplyDelete
  30. As a Finance and Investment Company who is a Premier Provider of Trade Finance, Project Finance & Funding; We also offer discountable Bank Instruments at moderate rates of the required BG | SBLC | DLC | LC | Loan| Bank Drafts Face Value.
    If you are interested contact us immediately by;-

    Name:Herceg Andras Lajos
    Email:halfunding.advisory@gmail.com
    Skype:halfunding.advisory@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  31. We specialized in Bank Guarantee {BG}, Standby Letter of Credit {SBLC}, Medium Term Notes {MTN}, Confirmable Bank Draft {CBD} as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed.

    We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description.

    The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee will be paid after the delivery of the MT760.

    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENT:
    Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC).
    Total Face Value: Minimum of 1M Eur/USD (One Million Eur/USD) to Maximum of 5B Euro/USD(Five Billion Eur/USD).
    Issuing Bank: HSBC London, Barclays Bank, Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Any AA rated Bank in Europe or any Top 25 WEB.
    Age: One Year, One Day
    Leasing Price: 4% of Face Value plus 1% commission fees to brokers.
    Delivery: Bank to Bank SWIFT.
    Payment: MT-760.
    Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request plus our terms and
    procedures.

    Contact name: Azra Ishaque

    Email : lintel.financialservicesplc@gmail.com

    Skype : lintel.financialservicesplc

    ReplyDelete