Wednesday, 13 May 2020

Filamentous Connections between Ediacaran Fronds from Newfoundland.

Fossils of the Ediacaran macrobiota ( from about 571 to 539 million years ago) record phylogenetically diverse marine palaeocommunities, including early Animals, which pre-date the Cambrian Explosion. Benthic forms with a frondose gross morphology, assigned to the morphogroups Rangeomorpha and Frondomorpha, are among the most temporally wide-ranging and environmentally tolerant members of the Ediacaran macrobiota and dominated deep-marine ecosystems  between about 571 and 560 million years ago. Investigations into the morphology, palaeoecology, reproductive strategies, feeding methods, and morphogenesis of frondose taxa together constrain their phylogenetic position to the Metazoan (for Rangeomorpha) or Eumetazoan (e.g., Arborea) total groups, but tighter constraint is currently lacking..

In a paper published in the journal Current Biology on 6 April 2020, Alexander Liu of the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Cambridge, and Frances Dunn of the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol, the British Geological Survey, and the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, describe fossils of abundant filamentous organic structures preserved among frond-dominated fossil assemblages in Newfoundland (Canada). The filaments constitute a prominent component of the ecosystems, and exhibit clear physical associations with at least seven frondose taxa. Individual specimens of one uniterminal Rangeomorph taxon appear to be directly connected by filaments across distances of centimeters to meters. Such physical linkages are interpreted to reflect evidence for stolonic connections: a conclusion with potential implications for the phylogenetic placement and palaeoecology of frondose organisms. Consideration of extant stoloniferous organisms suggests that Ediacaran frondose taxa were likely clonal and resurrects the possibility that they may have been colonial.

Fossilized macroscopic filamentous structures are here reported from 38 unique bedding plane horizons (out of 183 studied fossil-bearing horizons) on the Avalon and Bonavista peninsulas of Newfoundland. Filamentous structures manifest as low (less than 1 mm) positive epirelief impressions, with no visible cell walls, membranes, external ornamentation, or disarticulation. Filaments are typically 100–1000 μm in width and 2–40 cm in length, although the longest and thickest examples Liu and Dunn have observed (on the LC6 surface of the Catalina Member of the Trepassey Formation) measure over 4 m in total length. Filament densities vary between different bedding planes, ranging from occasional individual strands to hundreds per square meter (extrapolated estimates suggest over 580 filaments per m² from sections of the MUN Surface of the Port Union Member of the Trepassey Formation), but densities are largely uniform within individual bedding plane assemblages. Individual specimens possess broadly constant widths and traverse bedding planes in multiple directions, Where filaments meet, they are typically superimposed rather than cross-cutting, strongly suggesting that they are not trace fossils. Rarely, observed filamentous structures dichotomously bifurcate, while some examples are seemingly arranged into bundles from which individual filaments can radiate. Small bulges along the length of some filaments are also observed, often at triple junction branching points.

Filamentous Macrofossils from the Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland. Filaments are preserved as positive epirelief impressions beneath fine-grained tuffs. (A) Negative epirelief holdfast, with positive epirelief filaments running across (inferred to be beneath) and around it, PU13 Surface. (B) Dense superimposed filament assemblages, showing superposition and directional changes, PU13 Surface. (C) Abundant filaments from the MUN Surface. Note filament superposition (arrowed at left) and bundling (arrowed at right). Inset: orientations of all filaments present on cast CAMSM X 50340.1 CST1, from the MUN Surface. Orange arrows denote the range of orientations of frondose taxa (indicating perceived current direction). Blue bars indicate primary fracture directions. (D) Further filaments, including one specimen that overlies another (arrowed, PU13 Surface). (E) Filamentous structure (white arrows) seemingly wrapped around a concentric holdfast disc (black arrow). Scale bars in (A)–(D) 10 mm and in (E) 10 cm. Liu & Dunn (2020).

Filaments follow relatively straight paths, but slight to significant curvature in most specimens (even doubling back on themselves in places), and bending around the holdfast structures of frondose macrofossils indicates that they were originally flexible structures. Across studied filament populations, filaments show no consistent preferential alignment with fracture or cleavage planes, or frond orientations. Thin sections reveal no three-dimensional sub-surface expression or preserved organic material and confirm that filaments are not associated with sub-surface fracture planes. Together, these observations imply that the filamentous structures were benthic, and Liu and Dunn interpret observed specimens to have lain above/on seafloor-covering microbial mats at the point of burial. However, the gradual fading of many specimens into bedding surfaces suggests that filaments may also have lain partially beneath the sediment, or within microbial mats, outside the plane of preservation. Liu and Dunn cannot refute the possibility that smaller filaments may reflect torn, fragmented, or partially degraded specimens.

Rangeomorph Fronds and Associated Filaments on the LC6 Surface, Little Catalina, Newfoundland (A) Two large Rangeomorph fronds, seemingly connected by a filamentous structure (white arrows) that transits between their holdfasts (black arrows) and then continues across the surface, tracing an inverted ‘z’ shape on the surface (photograph from cast CAMSM X 50341.4 CST1). Inset: orientations of all filaments present on this cast. Orange arrows denote the range of orientations of frondose taxa (indicating perceived current direction). Blue bars indicate primary (thick) and secondary (thin) cleavage directions. (B)–(F) Further examples of multiple filaments (arrowed) converging on the holdfasts (circled) of Rangeomorph specimens. The specimens in (D),CAMSM X 50341.2 CST1) and (E) CAMSM X 50341.3 CST1 lie along the same filament, which continues beyond both of them. All examples are of the same, as yet unnamed, Rangeomorph taxon. Scale bars in (A) 10 cm, and in (B)–(F) 10 mm. Liu & Dunn (2020).

Ediacaran frondose taxa are typically constructed of one or multiple fronds and often possess a basal holdfast structure interpreted to have anchored them to the seafloor, as well as a stem to elevate the frond into the water column. Filaments occur alongside all frondose Ediacaran macrofossil taxa described from Newfoundland to date and could both overlie, and lie beneath, the fronds and stems of such organisms. Of the 38 surfaces on which we have documented filamentous impressions, they occur alongside frondose taxa on 27 surfaces, alongside only discoidal specimens on nine surfaces, and as the only fossil impressions on two surfaces. Several specimens of an undescribed uniterminal rangeomorph taxon on the LC6 surface exhibit filaments terminating at/converging upon the outer margin of their holdfast discs. In one specimen, a large, unbroken filament traverses the bedding plane for 4.1 m and terminates at the holdfast of a frond. It then doubles back for 46 cm and terminates at the holdfast of another similarly sized specimen of the same taxon, before continuing on a curving trajectory for 90 cm to terminate at a small circular bulge, from which two additional filamentous impressions radiate. These specific filaments can exhibit branching along their length, and in places comprise multiple discrete strands. A second pair of fronds of the same taxon lie along another single filament of over 2.23 m in length, and at least three other specimens of the same taxon on that surface possess holdfasts that exhibit direct contact with filamentous structures, many of which clearly change their course to converge on the holdfasts. 

Close-up Images of Seemingly Connected Rangeomorphs on the LC6 Surface (cast CAMSM X 50341.4 CST1). (A)–(B) Rangeomorph frond with multiple filamentous structures converging on its holdfast disc (B). Close-up of the holdfast region in (A). (C)–(D) Large Rangeomorph showing the spatial relationship between its holdfast and prominent filaments, which terminate at the holdfast margin. (D). Close-up of the holdfast region in (C). (E) Zoomed-out view of the frond in (C) showing how the filament leading to the second frond branches about 20 cm before reaching that specimen, with the branching filament (arrowed) possessing a trajectory that directly intersects the holdfast of the frond in (C). (F) Close-up of the bulbous branching junction (arrowed) between the filaments in (E). n.b. additional thinner filaments traverse the surface in multiple directions nearby. Scale bar gradations are in centimeters and millimeters. Liu & Dunn (2020).

Seven specimens of small frondose organisms termed ‘Ostrich Feathers’ on the LC6 surface are observed to possess filamentous structures of variable length that radiate from their holdfast margins. This variation in length in individual specimens is distinct from the radial ‘rays’ possessed by contemporary Hiemalora discs, which are typically of equal length in individual specimens.

Filamentous Macrofossils (arrowed) Terminating at Ediacaran Frondose Taxa. (A) Fractofusus andersoni from the Brasier Surface, Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve, with a filament seemingly extending from one end of the specimen midline. (B) Filaments on the MUN Surface, including one specimen that bisects the holdfast disc (circled) of a small Charniodiscus specimen. (C) Primocandelabrum sp. (MUN Surface), with associated filaments (arrowed) that appear to terminate at its holdfast. (D) Charnia masoni (cast CAMSM X 50341.5 CST1) from the LC6 surface, associated with two prominent curving filaments (arrowed) that converge on its holdfast. (E) ‘Ostrich feather’ specimen from the LC6 surface. Note the ray-like projections of variable length emanating from the holdfast disc (black arrows), with one filament (white arrow) extending from the holdfast over a greater distance of several centimeters. Scale bars 10 mm. Liu & Dunn (2020).

Several other frondose taxa exhibit one or multiple filaments terminating at or bisecting their holdfast margin (e.g., the Frondomorph/Arboreomorph Charniodiscus, and the Rangeomorphs Charnia and Primocandelabrum) Liu and Dunn also observed rare examples of single filaments terminating at one end of small Fractofusus andersoni specimens on the Brasier and H14 surfaces aligning with the trajectory of the organism’s midline and not emerging on the other side of the specimen.

Comparable filamentous structures to those seen in Newfoundland are recognized from the Memorial Crags and ‘Bed B’ surfaces of Charnwood Forest  (UK), occurring in relatively low densities directly adjacent to frondose macrofossils. Negative hyporelief linear structures in the frond-bearing Ediacara Member of South Australia, and the Lyamtsa and Verkhovka formations of the White Sea region, Russia, share morphological (e.g., their size and shape) and taphonomic (negative hyporelief/ positive epirelief surface impressions of low topography) similarities with the Newfoundland structures but require further investigation to confirm a common origin.

Looped filamentous macrofossil from the Avalonian Ediacaran deposits in the UK. Arrow indicates a point where the filament crosses over itself. Sale bar is 10 mm. Helen Boynton in Liu & McIlroy (2015), in McIlroy (ed) (2015).

The thousands of filamentous fossils in Newfoundland do not exhibit cellular preservation, annulations, striations, or ornamentation, and maintain constant width along their length. Specimens could reach large size, appear to have been flexible, could dichotomously branch, are inferred to have been benthic, and could terminate at (or radiate from) holdfast structures or assumed growth axes of frondose taxa. There is no link between the filaments and cleavage or fracture planes either at the surface or in thin sections, ruling out a tectonic origin. The non-uniform orientations of filaments on bedding planes indicate that they have not undergone significant current alignment and were therefore unlikely to have been tethered to the substrate at just one point.

Previously described Ediacaran filamentous macrofossil impressions are not directly comparable to those described by Liu and Dunn. Filamentous structures from Spain and Namibia interpreted as Vendotaenids, as well as structures from the Drook Formation of Newfoundland, can be of comparable width but are typically just a few centimeters in length, are preserved in far lower densities, and possess more sinuous morphologies than these Newfoundland specimens. Possible Algal fossils described from shallow marine assemblages of the White Sea only reach a few millimeters in length and are found in small, dispersed clusters on the bedding surfaces. A single figured specimen from the Khatyspyt Formation of Siberia documents physical filamentous connections between macroscopic circular carbonaceous compression fossils within successions that contain frondose taxa but includes no further description.

Other modern and extinct organisms with a macroscopic filamentous appearance include several Neoproterozoic forms of a few centimeters in length, which have been compared with Macroalgae, Metazoans, or the sheathes of Sulphur Bacteria, and Cyanobacteria.The filaments Liu and Dunn describe are too large to be attributed to most extant Bacterial groups, including Giant Bacteria and those capable of undergoing filamentation. Algal fossils can show some similarities to this material, but the deep-marine depositional setting inferred for the Conception Group in Newfoundland would preclude benthic photosynthetic lifestyles. Algae could have been washed into these depositional settings, but the abundance and extensive lateral distributions of filaments on bedding planes, and their apparent connections to holdfasts of frondose taxa, are difficult to explain in that scenario. The taphonomic style and branching of the filaments bears passing resemblance to certain late Ediacaran biotic sedimentary surface textures (e.g., ‘Arumberia'), but such impressions usually show a preferential alignment and regular spacing on a given surface and overwhelmingly occur in shallower sedimentary facies that do not contain Ediacara-type macrofossils.

The filaments described by Liu and Dunn exhibit widths at least an order of magnitude larger than those of the largest modern Fungal hyphae. Meanwhile, clear superposition rather than truncation renders an ichnological explanation unlikely.Filamentous components of contemporary Ediacaran macrofossils such as the long filamentous ‘string’ of Hadrynichorde or the radial ‘rays’ of Hiemalora are distinctive structures, with consistent spatial associations relative to their respective body impressions. Hiemalora typically possesses roughly 10–80 individual rays, which radiate in all directions from an attachment point at the margin of the disc, and which usually all terminate at similar distances of a few centimeters. This is in contrast to the small number of filaments (less than 8) associated with individual holdfasts seen among Liu and Dunn's material, which can extend over distances of many centimeters. To the best of Liu and Dunn's knowledge, there are no described extant or fossilized discrete, filamentous organisms that exhibit all aforementioned characters.

Strong circumstantial evidence for termination of filaments at frond holdfasts suggests a physical association with Ediacaran frondose taxa. Such an association could be direct (i.e., the filaments are part of the macro-organisms) or indirect (with the filaments being independent organisms engaging with the fronds passively, symbiotically or parasitically, as seen for example in the interactions between extant Plants and Mycorrhizal Fungal networks). An indirect relationship for the filaments with the frondose taxa cannot be ruled out but is considered less likely by Liu & Dunn since all observed filament-mediated connections between frondose specimens on individual surfaces are intraspecific. On the over 200 m² bedding plane LC6, which exhibits thousands of thin filamentous impressions, the majority of the few thick (at least 1 mm width) filamentous structures converge on holdfasts of a single, unnamed, Rangeomorph taxon seemingly passing adjacent holdfasts of other taxa without exhibiting any obvious relationship with them, despite high frond densities.

There is no indication that the filamentous structures were rigid (given their propensity to bend/change direction in many examples), implying that they were not biomineralized. Among extant marine taxa, non-mineralized filamentous outgrowths of comparable gross morphology occur in Algae (where they link individual fronds), certain Metazoans (where they link polyps/individuals), and Fungal mycelia. The outgrowths typically fulfill stabiliation, defense, nutrient transport, or (asexual) reproductive roles involving budding or stoloniferous growth, for example, in extant Algae (e.g., the Green Alga Caulerpa), terrestrial Plants, and Metazoans including Sponges, colonial Cnidarians, Entoprocts, and Bryozoans. These different functions of filamentous outgrowths are not mutually exclusive, and all remain potential candidates for the function of the Ediacaran filaments Liu and Dunn describe, given available evidence and sedimentary context.

Independent assessment of the spatial distribution of the Rangeomorph taxon Fractofusus on Ediacaran bedding planes predicted a stolon-like asexual reproductive strategy in the life cycle of that organism. Fractofusus specimens actually connected to each other by filaments have yet to be observed, but filaments are observed in abundance on several surfaces containing Fractofusus (e.g., bed H14), where they rarely terminate at the ends of small Fractofusus specimens. Fractofusus specimens possessing such filaments are never the very smallest but typically measure 1.5–3 cm in length. Further support for a stolon interpretation is provided by the presence of bulbous thickenings at filament branchpoints, which are morphologically comparable to the branch nodes seen in some stoloniferous Metazoans. If the filamentous structures do reflect stolon-like projections with a solely reproductive role, large specimens might be expected to connect to smaller ones. However, in examples of connected uniterminal Rangeomorph specimens on bed LC6, both specimens in any given pair are of a similar large size and are thus interpreted as ‘mature’ individuals of a similar developmental stage. This may indicate that, even if reproduction was the primary reason for stolon formation, the connections between specimens may have remained active for a considerable period following establishment of the individuals on the substrate, perhaps to facilitate nutrient transfer between individuals to counter the inferred nutrient-poor deep-water settings of the Conception Group. A stoloniferous habit is also consistent with observations that, in cases where fronds are seemingly connected, the filament often continues beyond the frond after meeting it, and that multiple filaments may converge upon a single holdfast.

The filamentous structures may ultimately provide novel morphological characters with which to assess Ediacaran fronds, but the prevalence of stolon-like structures among extant Eukaryotes means that, in isolation, stolonic growth cannot constrain the phylogenetic position of Ediacaran frondose taxa. However, multiple modern stoloniferous Eukaryotes, independent of phylogeny, are modular, clonal, and in some cases, colonial organisms. Ediacaran frondose taxa have previously been proposed to be clonal or colonial, albeit by viewing individual specimens as colonies on the basis of their highly compartmentalized morphology. In recent years, such interpretations have lost support as comparisons between frondose taxa and extant colonial Cnidarians have been questioned. A clonal facet to frond biology would raise the prospect that individual fronds were ‘unitary’ entities (ramets) within a larger benthic, interconnected clonal colony. This intriguing possibility could explain several aspects of frond palaeoecology (e.g., the dominance of particular taxa on individual surfaces) and has implications for our views of senescence, reproduction, and damage response within these early metazoan communities. Clonal reproduction in Ediacaran fronds could also have allowed for rapid colonisation of the seafloor or re-establishment of communities following sediment influx events. The observed filaments may therefore have favored rapid community succession by frondose taxa over non-frondose competitors in environments prone to episodic sedimentation, potentially in addition to engineering increased ecosystem habitability for those taxa by binding/stabilizing soft substrates.

Recognition of direct associations between organic filamentous structures and benthic frondose organisms offers new insight into late Ediacaran palaeocommunities. The profusion of filaments on Newfoundland bedding planes indicates that they were an important, and perhaps even integral, ecological component of frondose Ediacaran taxa and ecosystems. A stoloniferous interpretation of apparent filamentous connections between frondose taxa implies clonal reproduction in these organisms and may offer support to the view that these early macroscopic Metazoans were non-unitary.

See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/02/ediacaran-fossils-from-taroudant-group.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/putative-discoidal-fossils-from.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/using-ordovician-tafilalt-lagerstatte.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/reconstructing-ediacaran-nilpena.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/ediacaran-trace-fossils-suggest-that.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/understanding-deep-marine-origin-of.html
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    I am very happy today with my family. My name is Joann Vera from USA i am 34 years old , My husband left me for good 1 years now, and i love him so much, i have been looking for a way to get him back since then. i have tried many options but he did not come back, until i met a friend that darted me to PRIEST WISDOM  a powerful spell caster, who helped me to bring back my husband after 2 days. Me and my husband are living happily together today, That man is great, you can contact him via email supernaturalspell1@gmail.com … Now i will advice any serious persons that found themselves in this kind of problem to contact him now a fast solution without stress.. He is always there to help you , now i call him my father.contact him now he is always online or email (supernaturalspell@yahoo.com  ) or contact him on his WhatsApp mobile line +2348124644470 
    MORE INFO @  https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/

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  4. I initially invested a total of $105,000 over a period of 5 weeks. My bonus/profit was $830,000, every attempt to make withdrawal failed and I was instructed to make another deposit of $25,000 before I can make withdrawals which I did. Up till now, I'm still unable to make withdrawals and all attempt to contact broker has failed. This is very pathetic and I felt so bad losing my investment. I did a due diligence test before investing with them but guess what I ended up getting burned. This is to create awareness, not everybody can be as lucky as I was. I'm saying this because I was able to recover my funds. Thanks to a recovery specialist, she’s a private investigator and wealth recovery expert...Contact her on Hack-assets via google mail for more inquiries. email; (Raymondsusy39@gmail.com), or Via Whatapp (+1-361-887-3100). Thought someone might find this information useful.    

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  5. God bless Dr. USELU for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS since 2018 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. USELU , how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine within 3 days. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 2weeks later  i was cured from HERPES contact him via email (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) once again thanks to you Dr. USELU cure the flowing virus, contact his email or add him on whatsapp (+2349019328641) cancer cure
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  6. Good day to all viewer online am so happy sharing this great testimony on how i was checking for solution in the internet then miraculously i came Across Dr.LOSA the powerful herbalist that Cure Numerous individuals Herpes Simplex Virus,so I contacted him base on the testimonies I?m seeing about him on the internet, I was cured too by him, kindly contact him actoday through his email he can help you email ; dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com and so he can cure types of diseases like,HEPATITIS B,DIABETICS,CANCER,HPV,LOW SPERM CAM HIV/STDS FIBROSIS LOST OF WEIGHT .. all thank to you Dr LOSA for your kindly help in my life his Mobile WHATSAPP number +2349056464736


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  7. BEST SPELL CASTER WHO CAN HELP YOU WITH LOVE-SPELL TO GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK URGENTLY AFTER BREAKUP/DIVORCE EVEN IF YOUR SITUATION SEEMS HOPELESS! CONTACT: DOCTOR0LOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM IS CERTAINLY THE BEST SPELL CASTER ONLINE AND HIS RESULT IS 100% GUARANTEE..  
    Today being the most happiest day of my life after 1 year of sadness and sorrow without being with the one i love so much, i tried all my possible best to make sure i make my lover happy but it never seems to work out well it was like am doing everything in vain but all thanks to Dr love0 for coming to change all my worries and sadness to Joy. i knew the great man when i read some wonderful reviews about Dr love0 how he has helped a lots of people on there relationship problem i was reading a magazine which then i saw great testimonies as well which then i decided not to waste time because i have missed my lover so much i decided to contact him and share all my problem with him which then he told me not to worry that he assures me that within 48 hours everything would be sorted out i believed Dr love0 so much because i believe he can’t fail me but truly Dr love0 never failed me cos a man that stand on his worlds is really a man,my husband who left me for a year plus replied my text and for the first time returned my calls and asked me to please forgive him i was so happy and so grateful to Dr love0 for what he has done for me. if you are there passing through this same problem or of any kinds just contact this great man on email:( doctor0lovespell@gmail.com ) check his blogs: https://doctorlovespell0.blogspot.com/  or check website:  https://doctor0lovespell.wixsite.com/lovespell or visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Love-Spell-Doctor0-107453264273672/

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  8. Life has not been so easy for me, i almost gave up after been diagnosed with stage 2 cancer. I have tried many treatment including chemo and still didn't work for me, so i was going place to place just for me to search for herbs cure or any solution to my problem and i also have three kids to take care of, that same period my husband die in an accident on his way coming home, so life was very tough for me. so when i was going through the herbs site to find a cure for my problem i saw a story about a lady testify about DR. EDES, so i said to my self let me give a try to see if my problem can be solved, because i have spend alot of money In the hospital and there was no cure for it, so i contacted DR.EDES that afternoon of it and he gave me instruction how i will go about it and he sent me a herbal medicine which I took according to the way he instructed me to do. After taking the medicine for two weeks i saw changes on my body, then i called the Dr and told him about it and he said i should go for test. i can't believe when my result came out my cancer was gone and my family doctor was surprised too after seeing the result , i am very happy to share this great testimony to the world that there is real cure for CANCER. you can also contact DR.EDES Email: dredeshome@gmail.com also reach him on WhatsApp +2348151937428 https://dredesherbal.webs.com
    He also have herbal medicine to cure the following diseases; DIABETES, LUPUS, GOUT, HEPATITIS A&B, INFERTILITY, HIV/AIDS, CANCER, WART,ALS CURE,EPILEPSY,LOOSE WEIGHT, MISCARRIAGE,STROKE, FIBROID, PSORIASIS, PREGNANCY HERBAL MEDICINE, ITCHING, BAD BREATH, HERPES AND MANY MORE

    ReplyDelete
  9. BEST LOVE SPELL CASTER TO GET YOUR EX LOVER, HUSBAND, WIFE, GIRLFRIEND OR BOYFRIEND BACK. ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP: +905398102247

    I am very happy today with my family. My name is Joann Vera from USA i am 34 years old , My husband left me for good 1 years now, and i love him so much, i have been looking for a way to get him back since then. i have tried many options but he did not come back, until i met a friend that darted me to PRIEST ORMAN a powerful spell caster, who helped me to bring back my husband after 2 days. Me and my husband are living happily together today, That man is great, you can contact him via email orman.spiritualist3002@gmail.com … Now i will advice any serious persons that found themselves in this kind of problem to contact him now a fast solution without stress.. He is always there to help you , now i call him my father.contact him now he is always online or email (orman.spiritualist3002@gmail.com ) or contact him on his WhatsApp mobile line +905398102247
    MORE INFO @ https://ormanspritualist.blogspot.com/

    ReplyDelete
  10. EFFECTIVE AND POWERFUL LOVE SPELL TO GET YOUR EX PARTNER BACK TO YOU CONTACT DR ORMAN +905398102247

    Hello everyone i want to testify of the great and powerful spell caster named Dr Orman who brought back my ex who left me and got engaged to another girl, We where happy together when all of a sudden he just change he used to call me every morning and and night before going to bed but all that stopped when i call him he yell at me and told me he didn't want to have anything to do with me anymore i was so sad and confused i didn't know what to do then i went online to search on how to get back my ex then i found an article where someone was talking about how the great and powerful Dr Orman helped her and she left his email address i took it and contacted him i told him my problem he only smiled and told me to relax everything will be OK i did everything he asked me to do and he assured me that after 24hrs he will be back,To my greatest surprise the next morning it was my boyfriend he came back knelling and begging for me to accept him back now we are so happy together he can also help you contact him orman.spiritualist3002@gmail.com Website: https://ormanspritualist.blogspot.com/ WhatsApp +905398102247

    ReplyDelete
  11. EFFECTIVE AND POWERFUL LOVE SPELL TO GET YOUR EX PARTNER BACK TO YOU CONTACT DR ORMAN +905398102247

    Hello everyone i want to testify of the great and powerful spell caster named Dr Orman who brought back my ex who left me and got engaged to another girl, We where happy together when all of a sudden he just change he used to call me every morning and and night before going to bed but all that stopped when i call him he yell at me and told me he didn't want to have anything to do with me anymore i was so sad and confused i didn't know what to do then i went online to search on how to get back my ex then i found an article where someone was talking about how the great and powerful Dr Orman helped her and she left his email address i took it and contacted him i told him my problem he only smiled and told me to relax everything will be OK i did everything he asked me to do and he assured me that after 24hrs he will be back,To my greatest surprise the next morning it was my boyfriend he came back knelling and begging for me to accept him back now we are so happy together he can also help you contact him orman.spiritualist3002@gmail.com Website: https://ormanspritualist.blogspot.com/ WhatsApp +905398102247

    ReplyDelete
  12. If you’ve ever experienced the pain of an emotionally dead relationship or if you’ve ever had a man suddenly pull away and shut you out...

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    ==>Next time your man shuts you out do this

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    ReplyDelete
  13. I got my Genital Herpes cured a month ago. i have been reading so many comments of some people who were cured from various diseases by Doctor Razor, but i never believed them. I was hurt and depressed, I was too curious and wanted to try Doctor Razor, then i contacted him through his email (drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com) when i contact him, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out. My treatment was a great success, he healed me just as he promised. He sent me his medication and ask me to go for check up after 18 days of taking the his herbal medicine. I agreed with him and i took his medication and went for check up, to my greatest surprise my result came out negative after the treatment, I'm really delighted that i'm completely cured and healthy again. I waited for a month to be very sure i was completely healed before writing this testimony. I did another blood test one week ago and it was still Herpes negative. so i guess its time i recommend anyone going through Herpes HSV-1 or HSV-2, HIV, HPV, Hepatitis B, Diabetes, Cancer should reach him. EMAIL: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com. WHATSAPP: +2349065420442  My greatest joy is having back my happiness

    ReplyDelete
  14. I got my Genital Herpes cured a month ago. i have been reading so many comments of some people who were cured from various diseases by Doctor Razor, but i never believed them. I was hurt and depressed, I was too curious and wanted to try Doctor Razor, then i contacted him through his email (drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com) when i contact him, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out. My treatment was a great success, he healed me just as he promised. He sent me his medication and ask me to go for check up after 18 days of taking the his herbal medicine. I agreed with him and i took his medication and went for check up, to my greatest surprise my result came out negative after the treatment, I'm really delighted that i'm completely cured and healthy again. I waited for a month to be very sure i was completely healed before writing this testimony. I did another blood test one week ago and it was still Herpes negative. so i guess its time i recommend anyone going through Herpes HSV-1 or HSV-2, HIV, HPV, Hepatitis B, Diabetes, Cancer should reach him. EMAIL: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com. WHATSAPP: +2349065420442  My greatest joy is having back my happiness

    ReplyDelete
  15. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Hepatitis negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hello everyone i am very delighted that i recently got cured of herpes virus. I have been battling with this disease for over 4 years now, ever since i got diagnosed of the virus i have been using medical pills and therapies to suppress the virus. But inside of me i needed the Virus gone cause my health was deteriorating, So  i went on to the internet to search on how one could get cured from this virus, when i came across some testimonies on how herbalist razor has helped them get rid of Herpes virus, Hiv/aids, Cancer. I copied out his details (email ; drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com) and Whatsapp number +2349065420442) as provided by the testifiers on a blog site. But before that i was so skeptical, i knew there are so many herbal doctors on the internet,i needed the one who can help me get through this Herpes Virus completely with his herbal Remedy. I got in contact with doctor Razor,and i explained my problem to him and he promised to help me, which he actually did. I got my medication in the US sent by doctor razor and he instructed me on how i was to take it for 18 days. After the said 18 days i went for medical check up and the doctors ran some test on me and told me i was Herpes Negative, i was amazed and dumb-folded, so i had to go back home, i noticed my health for some months, i didn't have any outbreaks nor symptoms of the virus, but i went to another hospital after 2 months to conduct another test and the same result. I will be forever grateful to you doctor Razor and I will make sure the world gets to know about your herbal exploits sir. Reach doctor razor on his email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp/call his cell on +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  17. Hello everyone i am very delighted that i recently got cured of herpes virus. I have been battling with this disease for over 4 years now, ever since i got diagnosed of the virus i have been using medical pills and therapies to suppress the virus. But inside of me i needed the Virus gone cause my health was deteriorating, So  i went on to the internet to search on how one could get cured from this virus, when i came across some testimonies on how herbalist razor has helped them get rid of Herpes virus, Hiv/aids, Cancer. I copied out his details (email ; drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com) and Whatsapp number +2349065420442) as provided by the testifiers on a blog site. But before that i was so skeptical, i knew there are so many herbal doctors on the internet,i needed the one who can help me get through this Herpes Virus completely with his herbal Remedy. I got in contact with doctor Razor,and i explained my problem to him and he promised to help me, which he actually did. I got my medication in the US sent by doctor razor and he instructed me on how i was to take it for 18 days. After the said 18 days i went for medical check up and the doctors ran some test on me and told me i was Herpes Negative, i was amazed and dumb-folded, so i had to go back home, i noticed my health for some months, i didn't have any outbreaks nor symptoms of the virus, but i went to another hospital after 2 months to conduct another test and the same result. I will be forever grateful to you doctor Razor and I will make sure the world gets to know about your herbal exploits sir. Reach doctor razor on his email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp/call his cell on +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete