Tuesday, 19 May 2020

Lophelia pertusa: Cold-water Corals found living in strongly anoxic conditions off the coast of Angola.

Being ecosystem engineers, framework-forming Scleractinian Cold-water Corals provide habitat for thousands of deep-sea species, revealing equally remarkable levels of biodiversity as found in tropical Coral Reefs. Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-forming Cold-water Coral in the Atlantic, and based on its distribution correlated with ocean conditions, upper and lower tolerable limits for basic oceanographic parameters were proposed for this species. Among them, dissolved oxygen concentrations can exert control on its biogeographic distribution. However, lowest dissolved oxygen concentrations inhabited by this species apparently differs between the northeast Atlanatic, where it can tollerate levels as low as about 2 millilitres of oxygen per litre of seawater, and the northwest Atlanatic, where it can tollerate levels as low as about 3.7 millilitres of oxygen per litre of seawater. These observations are corroborated by laboratory experiments, revealing that Lophelia pertusa individuals collected from waters on the the Scottish margin in the northeast Atlantic, where there is a dissolved oxygen concentration of about 6 milligrams per litre of seawater, Atlantic, were unable to maintain normal aerobic functions at dissolved oxygen concentrations of less than 3.2 millilitres per litre of seawater. Moreover, for Lophelia pertusa specimens collected from areas of the Gulf of Mexico with dissolved oxygen concentrations of about 2.8 millilitres per litre of seawater, a 7-day exposure to a dissolved oxygen concentration of 1.5 millilitres per litre of seawater proved fatal. However, discoveries of Lophelia pertusa in the oxygen minimum zones of the subtropical eastern Atlantic have hinted at an even wider tolerance of Lophelia pertusa to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Nevertheless, the limited capability of Lophelia pertusa to thrive under dissolved oxygen concentrations (artificially) reduced below those of their natural environment questions its ability to cope with the global change-induced ocean deoxygenation expected for the coming century.

In a paper published in the journal Coral Reefs on 6 April 2020, Dierk Hebbeln and Claudia Wienberg of the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen, Wolf-Christian Dullo of the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, André Freiwald of the Marine Research Department at Senckenberg am Meer, Furu Mienis of the NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and Utrecht University, Covadonga Orejas of the Centro Oceanogra´fico de Baleares of the Instituto Español de Oceanografía, and Jürgen Titschack, also of the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen, and the Marine Research Department at Senckenberg am Meer, present the discovery of Lophelia pertusa-dominated Cold-water Coral reefs thriving in the hypoxic oxygen minimum zone off Angola in the southeast Atlantic. The regional adaptation of the Angolan Cold-water Corals to such extreme conditions sheds new light on their potential capability to cope with expected future environmental changes in the ocean.

During RV Meteor expedition M122 in January 2016, in situ oceanographic parameters such as dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperature were recorded off Angola. Data were collected during eight dives with the Remotely Operated Vehicle Marum Squid, carried out three benthic lander deployments, and 17 conventional conductivity, temperature, and depth instrument casts. The conductivity, temperature, and depth instrument was additionally equipped with a non-calibrated fluorescence sensor only providing relative values shown as means per water depth averaged from all conductivity, temperature, and depth instrument casts.

Multibeam bathymetry map showing the distribution of coldwater Coral reefs off Angola. Locations of conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) casts, benthic lander deployments, and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives are indicated. Hebbeln et al. (2020).

Remotely operated vehicle video observations revealed the presence of Cold-water Coral Reefs dominated by Lophelia pertusa, which colonise the slopes and summits of up to 100 m high Coral mounds. While dispersed Cold-water Coral colonies were found in a depth range of 250–500 m, large aggregates of healthy colonies were restricted to 330-470 m water depth. The observation of over 50 cm high colonies clearly evidenced the continuous proliferation of Cold-water Coral off Angola for many years.

Thriving Cold-water Corals observed in the oxygen minimum zone off Angola. (a), (b) Lophelia pertusa reefs in the center of the  oxygen minimum zone (350 m water depth). (c) Transported but alive Lophelia pertusa colony in the lower oxygen minimum zone (500 m depth). (d) Lophelia pertusa colony with many living polyps (439 m depth) (ROV images). Hebbeln et al. (2020).

The available oceanographic data revealed water temperatures of 6.8–14.2°C around the Cold-water Corals at depths of 250–500 m. The corresponding dissolved oxygen concentrations of 0.6-1.5 millilitres per litre of seawater are the lowest ever obtained from waters bathing flourishing Lophelia pertusa colonies.

To gain insight into the seasonal variability of  dissolved oxygen concentrationsoff Angola, as the M122 data only represent an 8.5-day snapshot from January 2016, Hebbeln et al. included further 21  conductivity, temperature, and depth instrumentcasts obtained within the mapped area off Angola between 1995 and 2013. These data, spanning from March to September, almost completely correspond to the M122 data or reveal even lower  dissolved oxygen concentrations. Interestingly, even in this hypoxic environment, most prolific Cold-water Coral Reefs are bound to the center of the Angolan oxygen minimum zone where lowest dissolved oxygen concentrations prevail, which coincide with enhanced water-column fluorescence pointing to an increased availability of relatively fresh organic matter.

Based on field observations in the northwest and northeast Atlantic, the assumed lower limit of Lophelia pertusa’s oxygen tolerance ranges around 2-3.7 millilitres per litre of seawater. This has recently been challenged by very low dissolved oxygen concentrations of 1.1-1.4 millilitres per litre of seawater reported from Cold-water Coral sites off Mauritania, which, however, are associated with only sporadic occurrences of small Lophelia pertusa colonies. The new Angolan data documented for the first time Lophelia pertusa’s ability to develop thriving reefs even under dissolved oxygen concentrations of under 1 milligram per litre of seawater.

In addition, off Angola Lophelia pertusa lives at temperatures of up to 14.2° C, which are among the highest temperatures ever observed for this species. Thus, off Angola, the partly high temperatures could act as a second stressor since respiration rates of Lophelia pertusa increase with increasing temperature. 

Stress induced by low dissolved oxygen concentrations and relatively high temperatures is energetically a challenge for the metabolism of most marine species, but can be compensated by the availability of large quantities of high-quality organic matter. The Angolan and Mauritanian margins belong to highly productive upwelling systems triggering extensive oxygen minimum zones. Also at many other Atlantic reef sites, Lophelia pertusa is most abundant at depth intervals with highest oxygen depletion, most likely linked to highest concentrations of suspended food particles in this layer, which also applies to Angola. Comparing ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperature with site-specific net primary productivity, used as a food supply indicator, for several Atlantic Cold-water Coral sites, it appears plausible that the negative effects of hypoxia and high temperatures on Lophelia pertusa seemingly could be compensated by significantly enhanced food supply.

With respect to Lophelia pertusa preferring regional oxygen minima, ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations cannot provide any information about its capability to also cope with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations. However, some information is provided by the aforementioned laboratory experiments. Lophelia pertusa collected in the northeast Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico could not withstand dissolved oxygen concentrations of less than 40–50% of the ambient values. Consequently, the range of low dissolved oxygen concentrations tolerable by Lophelia pertusa, also beyond its natural environment, might depend on the conditions the corals are acclimated to, thus pointing to a possible genotypic adaptive capacity of Lophelia pertusa. Thus, although on a global scale the tolerable dissolved oxygen concentration limits for Lophelia pertusa range from less than 1 to more than 6 millilitres per litre of seawater, smaller ranges define these limits on regional scales.

Cold-water Coral Reefs are vulnerable marine ecosystems that are partly protected within marine protected areas. These can safeguard Cold-water Corals from destructive Human impacts (e.g., bottom trawling, hydrocarbon exploration), but offer no sustainable protection against global change-induced threats. In concert with ocean acidification and warming of intermediate waters, eoxygenation is expected to become a major stressor for  Cold-water Corals. However, Lophelia pertusa’s general capacity to thrive under well-oxygenated as well as hypoxic bottom waters reveals a rather high oxygen tolerance, although individual Lophelia pertusa populations appear to have limited adaptive capabilities to cope with reductions of 40–50% of ambient dissolved oxygen values. Consequently, the expected decrease in oxygenation of about 2% along the Atlantic continental margins by 2100 by itself might not exert a serious threat to Lophelia pertusa, except for already hypoxic settings like the Angolan margin. However, palaeotological studies revealed that during the last approximately 20 000 years regional changes in water column structure caused the collapse of Lophelia pertusa dominated ecosystems due to decreasing  dissolved oxygen concentrations. Thus, unlike a small overall decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations, major regional reductions in dissolved oxygen concentration driven by global change-induced changes in ocean circulation have the potential to eradicate regional Lophelia pertusa populations.

Even if smaller decreases in dissolved oxygen concentration alone might not pose a serious threat to Lophelia pertusa reefs, these have to be considered in concert with other changing environmental parameters that might form additional stressors (e.g. temperature and pH) with largely unknown consequences for the Coral’s biological functions. Moreover, the flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean might decline by about 30% by 2100 along the Atlantic margins, resulting in a lower food supply to the Cold-water Corals and deep-sea organisms in general, thus reducing their capacity to cope with increasing stress.

See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2020/05/tracing-decline-of-acroporid-corals-in.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2020/05/oulastrea-crispata-understanding.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/06/calliostoma-bullatum-extinct.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2020/05/acropora-cervicornis-assessing-success.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2020/05/deciphering-changes-in-symbiotic.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/03/lophelia-pertusa-cold-water-coral.html
Follow Sciency Thoughts on Facebook.

10 comments:

  1. Life has not been so easy for me, i almost gave up after been diagnosed with stage 2 cancer. I have tried many treatment including chemo and still didn't work for me, so i was going place to place just for me to search for herbs cure or any solution to my problem and i also have three kids to take care of, that same period my husband die in an accident on his way coming home, so life was very tough for me. so when i was going through the herbs site to find a cure for my problem i saw a story about a lady testify about DR. EDES, so i said to my self let me give a try to see if my problem can be solved, because i have spend alot of money In the hospital and there was no cure for it, so i contacted DR.EDES that afternoon of it and he gave me instruction how i will go about it and he sent me a herbal medicine which I took according to the way he instructed me to do. After taking the medicine for two weeks i saw changes on my body, then i called the Dr and told him about it and he said i should go for test. i can't believe when my result came out my cancer was gone and my family doctor was surprised too after seeing the result , i am very happy to share this great testimony to the world that there is real cure for CANCER. you can also contact DR.EDES Email: dredeshome@gmail.com also reach him on WhatsApp +2348151937428 https://dredesherbal.webs.com
    He also have herbal medicine to cure the following diseases; DIABETES, LUPUS, GOUT, HEPATITIS A&B, INFERTILITY, HIV/AIDS, CANCER, WART,ALS CURE,EPILEPSY,LOOSE WEIGHT, MISCARRIAGE,STROKE, FIBROID, PSORIASIS, PREGNANCY HERBAL MEDICINE, ITCHING, BAD BREATH, HERPES AND MANY MORE

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. KARNA RASA HATI YANG GEMBIRA BERKAT BANTUAN AKI SOLEH
      MAKANYA SENGAJA NAMA BELIAU SAYA CANTUNKAN DI INTERNET !!!

      assalamualaikum wr, wb, saya IBU NUR INTAN saya Mengucapkan banyak2
      Terima kasih kepada: AKI SOLEH
      atas nomor togelnya yang kemarin AKI berikan "4D"
      alhamdulillah ternyata itu benar2 tembus AKI
      dan berkat bantuan AKI SOLEH saya bisa melunasi semua hutan2…
      orang tua saya yang ada di BANK BRI dan bukan hanya itu AKI alhamdulillah,
      sekarang saya sudah bisa bermodal sedikit untuk mencukupi kebutuhan keluarga saya sehari2.
      Itu semua berkat bantuan AKI SOLEH sekali lagi makasih banyak ya, AKI
      yang ingin merubah nasib
      seperti saya...?
      SILAHKAN GABUNG SAMA AKI SOLEH No; { 082-313-336-747 }

      Sebelum Gabung Sama AKI Baca Duluh Kata2 Yang Dibawah Ini
      Apakah anda termasuk dalam kategori di bawah ini...!!
      1: Di kejar2 tagihan hutang..
      2: Selaluh kalah dalam bermain togel
      3: Barang berharga sudah
      terjual buat judi togel..
      4: Sudah kemana2 tapi tidak
      menghasilkan, solusi yang tepat..!
      5: Sudah banyak dukun ditempati minta angka ritual blom dapat juga,
      satu jalan menyelesaikan masalah anda..
      Dijamin anda akan berhasil
      silahkan buktikan sendiri
      Atau Chat/Tlpn di WhatsApp (WA)
      No WA Aki : 082313336747

      TERIMA KASIH YANG PUNYA
      ROOM ATAS TUMPANGANYA SALAM KOMPAK SELALU
      Angka;Ghaib: Singapura
      Angka;Ghaib: Hongkong
      Angka;Ghaib: Toto Malaysia
      Angka”Ghaib: Laos…
      Angka”Ghaib: Macau
      Angka”Ghaib: Sidney
      Angka”Ghaib: Brunei
      Angka”Ghaib: Thailand
      "KLIK DISINI BOCORAN TOGEL SGP HK SDY DAN DLL"

      Delete
    2. Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
      ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

      https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

      Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

      Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

      WhatsApp +2347059715465 .






      Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
      ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

      https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

      Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

      Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

      WhatsApp +2347059715465 .






      Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
      ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

      https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

      Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

      Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

      WhatsApp +2347059715465 .

      Delete
    3. Hello everyone i Am williams pater and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,olu I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,OLU and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drolusolutionhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR OLU for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil  drolusolutionhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348140654426 ] 

      Delete
  2. I just want the whole world to know about this spell caster I met
    two weeks ago, wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com I cannot say everything he has done for me my wife
    left me 3 years ago left with my kids I was going through online
    when I meant this wonderful man's testimony online I decided to
    give it a try and my wife is back to me now and we ar1e happily
    married again cause is too much to put in writing all I can say is
    thank you very much am very happy .and does alot of spell
    including Love Spell
    Death Spell
    Money Spell
    Power Spell
    Success Spell
    Sickness Spell
    Pregnancy Spell
    Marriage Spell
    Job Spell
    Protection Spell
    Lottery Spell
    Court Case Spell
    Luck Spell etc. In case you need his help contact him on this email
    address wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com he is a good man
    thanks.whatsapp number +234813 648 2342

    ReplyDelete
  3. God bless Dr. USELU for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS since 2018 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. USELU , how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine within 3 days. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 2weeks later  i was cured from HERPES contact him via email (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) once again thanks to you Dr. USELU cure the flowing virus, contact his email or add him on whatsapp (+2349019328641) cancer cure
    diabetes cure
    ringing ear
    herpes cure
    warts cure
    HPV cure
    HIV cure
    get your ex back
    pregnancy herbal medicine
    Hepatitis  

    ReplyDelete
  4. I am so happy to be finally cured of herpes simplex virus  by herbalist Razor,Ever since i was diagnosed with the virus i have been using medical drugs to suppress it, i later realized it was causing more damage to my health than the virus,i opted for herbs and got to find out about the great work herbalist Doctor razor have been doing with his herbal remedy. i contacted him and he promised to help me get rid of it,after 4 days i received a package fro the delivery service and it was from the doctor who sent me the herbal treatment in Dallas,Texas USA, And he instructed me on how i was going too take in for the 18 days. After completing the dosage he told e to go for a medical checkup and when i did the doctors conducted some test on me but they were stunned that my status was now negative,they conducted several test on me to be sure. i even went to Medical City Dallas Hospital, where they conducted another test and it was still negative. I am so grateful to you herbal doctor razor , God will continue to prosper you,i pray the world gets to know about you and your herbal exploits. Reach him on his email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com Whatsapp/Call his cell phone on +2349065420442. PLEASE SHARE , SO THE WORLD CAN GET TO KNOW ABOUT HIM

    ReplyDelete
  5. I am so happy to be finally cured of herpes simplex virus  by herbalist Razor,Ever since i was diagnosed with the virus i have been using medical drugs to suppress it, i later realized it was causing more damage to my health than the virus,i opted for herbs and got to find out about the great work herbalist Doctor razor have been doing with his herbal remedy. i contacted him and he promised to help me get rid of it,after 4 days i received a package fro the delivery service and it was from the doctor who sent me the herbal treatment in Dallas,Texas USA, And he instructed me on how i was going too take in for the 18 days. After completing the dosage he told e to go for a medical checkup and when i did the doctors conducted some test on me but they were stunned that my status was now negative,they conducted several test on me to be sure. i even went to Medical City Dallas Hospital, where they conducted another test and it was still negative. I am so grateful to you herbal doctor razor , God will continue to prosper you,i pray the world gets to know about you and your herbal exploits. Reach him on his email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com Whatsapp/Call his cell phone on +2349065420442. PLEASE SHARE , SO THE WORLD CAN GET TO KNOW ABOUT HIM

    ReplyDelete
  6. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Hepatitis negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358

    ReplyDelete
  7. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Hepatitis negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358

    ReplyDelete