Friday, 15 May 2020

Looking for the nutrient source of the Ediacaran Biota of the White Sea.

The appearance of the first macroscopic, morphologically complex organisms in the late Ediacaran (roughly 571–541 million years ago) was the onset of one of the most important biological transitions in Earth’s history. However, it remains unclear which environmental, ecological and evolutionary factors accompanied the emergence of large Animal-like organisms, and how these various factors interacted. The most popular models connect the appearance and ecological success of animals with rising atmospheric oxygen concentrations in the Neoproterozoic. Yet, molecular oxygen as a limiting resource faces several challenges. While increasing oxygenation of deep marine waters in the Neoproterozoic broadly coincides with the appearance of macro-organisms in such environments, suitably oxic conditions were probably established in well aerated surface environments hundreds of millions of years earlier. Moreover, Cyanobacterial mats are ubiquitous in shallow-marine environments in the Proterozoic and would have provided stable ecospace with elevated oxygen concentrations for organisms with mat-related lifestyles far back in Earth history. 

An alternative environmental factor that may have constrained the timing of eumetazoan emergence and radiation is nutrient availability, including bio-limiting elements and efficient carbon sources supplied by primary producers. The abundance of different classes of primary producers in Precambrian oceans can be tracked using molecular fossils, or biomarkers. The most common biomarkers are alteration products of membrane lipids such as hopanols found in numerous aerobic Bacteria, including Cyanobacteria, and sterols produced by Algae and other Eukaryotes. During sedimentary diagenesis, hopanols are transformed into hydrocarbon hopanes, while sterols yield fossil steranes. Hopanes and steranes are extracted from ancient sedimentary rocks using organic solvents and quantified using gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy. The proportion of hopanes over steranes, the hopane/sterane ratio, can be used as an estimate for the relative flux of Bacterial versus Eukaryotic organic matter to bottom sediments, and thus as a first-order approximation for the relative importance of Algal versus Cyanobacterial biomass, among both benthos and plankton. The transition from Bacteria- to Eukaryote-dominated primary production in the oceans, recorded by biomarkers, occurred about 650-635 million years ago and may have been crucial for the success of most macroscopic heterotrophs.

In a paper published in the journal Nature Communications on 9 March 2020, Ilya Bobrovskiy of the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University, and the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences at the California Institute of Technology, Janet Hope, also of the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University, Elena Golubkova of the Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Jochen Brocks, again of the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University, examine the hopane and sterane contents of the Ediacara Fauna-bearing strata of the White Sea area of the East European Platform in Russia, in order to try to assess the nutrient sources utilised by these early macro-organisms.

The Ediacara biota represents the first global appearance of large heterotrophic organisms, including Animals, in the fossil record, and thus reflects aspects of the ecology and evolution of early Animals. Recent studies have reported biomarkers from Ediacaran sediments of the East European Platform with hopane/sterane ratios that are high relative to typical Phanerozoic marine conditions. Consequently, it has been suggested that Ediacaran macroorganisms preferentially inhabited oligotrophic environments and used Bacteria as their main energy source, as either food or symbionts. It is notable, however, that none of the biomarker data came from localities that preserve Ediacaran macrofossils, and it remains to be seen whether they usefully reflect ecological circumstances across the whole of the East European Platform. In order to resolve the particular circumstances under which Ediacaran macroorganisms lived, Bobrovskiy et al. analyse biomarkers from sediments with Ediacaran macrofossils from the White Sea area of the East European Platform, and show that Eukaryotic algae were abundant among the food sources available for the Ediacara biota.

Map contrasting the fossil and biomarker localities of this (green) and previous (orange) biomarker studies at the East European Platform. The grey symbols indicate known localities of the Ediacara biota where sediments are too thermally mature to preserve biomarkers. Bobrovskiy et al. (2020).

The distribution of Ediacaran macrofossils within the White Sea area sections is largely controlled by taphonomy, the fossils are best preserved at the soles of sandstone layers, but less abundant fossils of poorer quality are scattered throughout the entire sedimentary succession. To get a full picture about the distribution of primary producers in depositional environments associated with the Ediacara biota, samples collected from the entire section exposed in the studied localities were analysed for biomarkers (including 52 samples from fossiliferous intervals and six samples from adjacent stratigraphic levels devoid of fossils). Most organic geochemical studies analyse centimetre-scale sedimentary rock samples, thus averaging ecological signals across substantial periods of time, and potentially missing ecologically distinct endmembers. To ensure that they indeed capture the exact ecological environment of organisms of the Ediacara Biota, Bobrovskiy et al.  analysed sediments immediately beneath and above surfaces with Ediacara biota fossils at millimetre resolution. As organisms of the Ediacara Biota are preserved in situ, biomarkers extracted from clay underneath the fossils represent the substrate they were living on. Sandstones above fossils normally represent storm deposited material; biomarkers extracted from these sandstones presumably average the biomass of the local environment, but may also contain material transported from adjacent settings. Specifically, Bobrovskiy et al. analysed two surfaces in the Lyamtsa locality that contain abundant Dickinsonia, Parvancorina and Palaeopascichnus fossils, and well-studied surfaces in the Zimnie Gory, known as Z1(I) and Z11(XXII), which contain Andiva, Archaeaspinus, Armilifera, Aspidella, Brachina, Charniodiscus, Cyanorus, Cyclomedusa, Dickinsonia, Inaria, Ivovicia, Kimberella, Onega, Ovatoscutum, Paleophragmodictya, Paravendia, Parvancorina, Tamga, Temnoxa, Tribrachidium and Yorgia.

Samples were collected during fieldworks in the White Sea region (Russia) in 2015–2017 specifically for biomarker analysis. Samples came from a 40 m thick stratigraphic interval of Lyamtsa and Arkhangelsk Beds (Ust-Pinega Formation, Redkino Regional Stage) in the Lyamtsa Ediacara Biota locality, and from a 120 m thick interval of Vaysitsa, Zimnie Gory (Ust-Pinega Formation, Redkino Regional Stage) and Erga beds (Mezen Formation, Kotlin Regional Stage) in the Zimnie Gory locality. Samples were collected avoiding weathered zones and cracks and were immediately wrapped in pre-baked aluminium foil (300 °C, 9 hours) and packed in calico bags to avoid contamination.

Deposits in the Lyamtsa and Zimnie Gory localities of the Ediacara biota are mainly represented by clay and mm-scale heterolithic interlamination of clay, siltstone and sandstone, with occasional 0.5–10 cm, sometimes up to 60 cm thick sandstone lenses and layers. In the Zimnie Gory locality, nearly every siltstone and sandstone, including millimetre-thick lenses in the interlamination, has a microbial mat impression at the base; in Lyamtsa, these impressions are relatively rarer, and some surfaces are erosional. Fossils are typically preserved at the base of sandstone layers with microbial mat impressions, however some specimens are also sometimes found within clay. Samples include sediments immediately (within the first millimetres) underlying (clay) and overlying (typically sandstone) surfaces with Ediacara Biota fossils, as well as 59 samples from sedimentary layers throughout the exposed sections that are not known to contain fossils. Ediacaran macro-organisms are found in situ, therefore biomarker composition of clays they were living on was taken as the closest approximation of environments the Ediacara biota inhabited. Sandstones overlying the fossils are mostly of storm origin and would contain reworked organic matter deposited in the environments with the Ediacara Biota, but might also contain material transported from other environments.

Samples were prepared in an ultra-clean facility dedicated to trace biomarker analysis at the Australian National University. To identify and eliminate any surficial trace contaminants, the clay was analysed using the exterior–interior protocol. The outer 3–4 mm of the sample were removed using a micro drill with a combusted (290 °C, 9 hour) and solvent cleaned saw nozzle and represented the exterior (‘E’) portion. Analysis of the last saw-blade solvent rinse confirmed that it was free of detectable contaminants. The exterior and the interior portions of the clay sample were ground to powder using a steel puck mill. The mill was cleaned using dichloromethane and methanol, and by grinding combusted (600 °C, 9 h) quartz sand. As the samples were collected from outcrops into aluminium foil and cotton bags, which has been proven to prevent contamination, for ten samples both interior and exterior portions were analysed as control; for the rest, we analysed only interior portions, but exterior portions were kept in case there is any contamination in the analysed exterior portions or increased maturity parameters in these samples.

Bitumen was extracted from rock powder using an accelerated solvent extractor with dichloromethane and methanol (9:1), reduced to 100 μl under a stream of nitrogen gas. All solvents used in the study were 99.9% grade; all glassware was cleaned by combustion at 300 °C for 9 hours. An extract was then fractionated into saturated, aromatic and polar fractions using micro-column chromatography over annealed (300 °C; 12 hours) and dry packed silica gel. Saturated hydrocarbons were eluted with 1 dead volume of n-hexane, aromatic hydrocarbons with 4.5 dead volumes of n-hexane and dichloromethane (1:1) and the polar fraction with 3 ml dichloromethane and methanol (1:1). An internal standard, 18-methyleicosanoic acid methylester, was added to the saturated and aromatic fractions for quantification. The samples were analysed and quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

Due to the mild thermal history of Ediacaran deposits in the White Sea area (i.e. the fact that they have never been deeply buried and heated by geothermal energy), Ediacaran macrofossils co-occur there with extremely well preserved biomarkers, offering a unique opportunity to assess the habitat and ecological preferences of these problematic organisms. The White Sea area offers localities with the most diverse and abundant Ediacara biota in the world, including various members of the White Sea, Avalon and Nama assemblages. All sediments from the Lyamtsa and Zimnie Gory localities were originally deposited in shallowmarine environments and preserve evidence for persistent and pervasive microbial mats.

Thus, Bobrovskiy et al.'s study looks at biomarkers representative of environments for a broad range of species of the Ediacara Biota with variable feeding strategies, including burrowers (e.g. Sabellidita, Calyptrina), mat-scrapers (e.g. Andiva, Dickinsonia, Kimberella) and potentially filter- or osmotroph-feeding mat stickers (Arborea, e.g. Charniodiscus). It was impossible to obtain biomarker data from particular sections and time intervals that only contain a single assemblage of the Ediacara Biota due to their high thermal maturity (e.g. Newfoundland, United Kingdom, or Namibian sections). However, allowing for some extrapolation, the data collected in the current study provide information about the local ecological environment of representative organisms of all three existing Ediacara Biota assemblages, which otherwise occur in a wider temporal and palaeogeographic context.

To place the Ediacaran biomarkers from the White Sea area into a broad temporal context, Bobrovskiy et al. summarised data for Bacterial hopanes and Algal steranes from the Tonian to the present. Based on biomarkers, Bacteria were the only notable primary producers in Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic oceans. Primitive Eukaryotic sterane signatures emerged around 900–800 million years ago, although the overall hopane/sterane ratio remained high (70% of values are hopane/sterane ratios above 29.5, and steranes are below detection limits in 43% of samples that contain hopanes). Moreover, it is unclear whether steranes in Tonian sediments are derived from Algae or other organisms. The first signs of unambiguous Algal productivity occurred in a single sample assigned to the Cryogenian, around 650 million years ago, and started to be a dominating signal from the very beginning of the Ediacaran, close to 635 million years ago. This ‘Rise of Algae’ was marked by an order-ofmagnitude drop in hopane/sterane ratios and the emergence of a near-modern sterane diversity. Phanerozoic sediments, in contrast to the Tonian, mainly demonstrate continuously low hopane/sterane values, (hopane/sterane ratios in the 0.5–5 range accounts for 70% of samples with the mode at 1.3), indicating that Algae have been key primary producers for the past 541 million years.

Timeline through the Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic and abundance information for hopanes and steranes. (a) The relative abundance of the sterane homologues cholestane (C₂₇, green), ergostane (C₂₈, blue) and stigmastane (C₂₉, green). Size of the coloured areas reflects relative sterane abundances. (b) Evolution of the relative abundance of Bacterial hopanes over Eukaryotic steranes (hopane/sterane) through time (orange, Tonian and Cryogenian; yellow, Ediacaran (data from Oman and Siberia); blue, Phanerozoic); the scale goes from hopane/sterane roughly infinite (with no steranes detected) to hopane/sterane values equal 0.25. Histograms showing the abundance distribution of hopane/sterane values for different periods and locations: (c) Phanerozoic biomarker data reported in the literature; (d) Ediacaran of the South Oman Salt Basin and the Siberian platform; (e) Ediacaran of the White Sea area; (f) previous biomarker analyses on the Ediacaran of the East European Platform (localities are marked as orange circles on the top figure); (g) Tonian and Cryogenian biomarker data reported in the literature. Bobrovskiy et al. (2020).

The Ediacaran, however, yields bitumens with hopane/sterane signatures resembling both the Tonian and Phanerozoic. Sediments from the Oman Salt Basin and the Siberian platform demonstrate hopane/sterane values similar to the Phanerozoic (hopane/sterane values equal 0.75–1.4 range accounts for 70% percentile with the mode value 1.3). By contrast, bitumens from the Ediacaran interior seaway of the East European Platform include numerous elevated hopane/sterane values up to 119 (hopane/sterane values equal 1.5–12.5 range accounts for 70% percentile with several modes, and median value 7.7), values otherwise typical for the Tonian. It has been suggested that the elevated hopane/sterane values in the interior seaway of the East European Platform, just as those from the Tonian might reflect a strong predominance of Bacteria among primary producers, potentially due to regionally oligotrophic conditions, thus highlighting a high spatial heterogeneity in primary producer communities in Ediacaran marine environments.

Based on the hopane/sterane data from global Ediacaran sediments, the Ediacara Biota might have either inhabited newly established Algae-rich environments or, conversely, thrived in nutrient-depleted ecosystems dominated by Bacterial primary productivity akin to the Tonian or Mesoproterozoic. If latter hypothesis is correct, then the diet and ecology of organisms of the Ediacara Biota must have been very distinct from most Phanerozoic Animals, and it would invalidate the premise that the emergence of abundant Algal food sources was crucial for the ecological success of Eumetazoan Animals. Biomarker data from sediments directly associated with Ediacara Biota fossils can shed light on this dispute.

The clay and sandstone material directly surrounding Ediacara Biota fossils in the White Sea sections demonstrate low hopane/sterane ratios (hopane/sterane values equal 2.5–5). The overall hopane/sterane values from the whole set of White Sea area sediments vary slightly more broadly (hopane/sterane values in the 1–7 range account for 70% of the samples with the mode value 3.3, in 59 samples). The hopane/sterane value for the only sample that has been reported from the Ediacara Biota localities in Arctic Siberia (hopane/sterane value equals 2.7) falls near the mode value for the White Sea area, although it is impossible to judge whether this sample is representative of the whole section. These hopane/sterane values suggest that the Ediacara Biota inhabited environments with near-modern fluxes of Bacterial versus Eukaryotic biomass. Moreover, steranes of the White Sea area are strongly dominated by stigmastanes (C₂₉ makes up 75% of C₂₇–C₂₉ 59 sterane homologues, where C₂₉ represents steranes with 29 carbon atoms and C₂₇ represents steranes with 27 carbon atoms). The C₂₉ predominance among steranes in the White Sea area is characteristic of Ediacaran biomarker signatures and likely reflects predominance of green Algae among Eukaryotes. The mode of hopane/sterane ratio values in the White Sea area is somewhat elevated in comparison to the Phanerozoic. This elevation may reflect a stronger relative contribution of planktonic Cyanobacterial biomass than the average for the Phanerozoic, but is more likely associated with benthic Cyanobacterial mats that are widespread in White Sea sediments and generally abundant in Ediacaran shallow-water environments. Regardless, Ediacaran macroorganisms of the White Sea area inhabited environments that were orders of magnitude enriched in Algal relative to Bacterial food sources when compared with the Tonian, and in this respect similar to Phanerozoic marine habitats.

Examples of Ediacaran macrofossils from the White Sea Area and associated hopane/sterane ratios from sediments immediately over- and underlying the fossils. (a) Aspidella and Kimberella from the Z11(XXII) surface (Zimnie Gory, photo by E Uryvaeva); (b) Andiva from the Z1(1) surface (Zimnie Gory), the surface also contains Archaeaspinus, Armilifera, Brachina, Charniodiscus, Cyanorus, Cyclomedusa, Dickinsonia, Inaria, Ivovicia, Kimberella, Onega, Paravendia, Parvancorina, Temnoxa, Tribrachidium, Yorgia; (c) Dickinsonia (Lyamtsa); (d) Palaeopascichnus (Lyamtsa). n.m., not measurable. Bobrovskiy et al. (2020).

The Rise of Algae 650-635 million years ago has changed the ecosystems on our planet forever, although the trigger for this phenomenon is unclear. It has been proposed that a potential increase in nutrient levels in the oceans at that time could have made Algae more competitive relative to photosynthetic Bacteria, or alternatively that Protistan Eukaryotes or Bacteriovorous Sponge-grade Animals effectively reduced Bacterial biomass, thus providing ecospace for Algae. Whatever the causes for the proliferation of planktonic Algae, their biomass may have fuelled the radiation of Eumetazoan Animals by increasing the efficiency of nutrient and energy transfer to higher trophic levels based on larger cells sizes compared with Bacterial phytoplankton, and by supplying fast sinking food particles to benthic Animal communities at the sea floor. However, this is to ignore that microbial mats were present in the oceans long before Algal food became available. With the discovery of a motile lifestyle among the earliest branching Eumetazoa (Placozoa and Ctenophora), pervasive Cyanobacterial mat coverage in well-oxygenated shallow-water environments would have provided ample resources for Metazoan proliferation. Yet, the vast majority of extant Eumetazoan Animals prefers a Eukaryote-dominated diet; with rare exceptions, Eumetazoans are not sustained by purely Bacterial food sources. A preference for a Eukaryotic diet may thus be the ancestral state of Eumetazoa, possibly due to the high nutritional quality of Algal biomass.

Based on sedimentological evidence and biomarker data presented by Bobrovskiy et al., the Ediacara biota of the  East European Platform inhabited well-mixed oxygenated shallow-water environments with levels of potential Algal food supply comparable to the Phanerozoic. This observation in the White Sea area is consistent with a recent spatial analyses of  the roughly 570-million-year-old Ediacaran ecosystems on the Avalon Peninsula, overlapping with the White Sea area taxonomically, that showed that competition for resources was not the driving factor for local Ediacaran communities. Unlike previously predicted, Bacteria-dominated ecosystems in Ediacaran marine basins were generally not a cause of the unusual appearance and ecology of the Ediacara Biota. Rather, the ecological and evolutionary bridge leading from a mid-Proterozoic Bacteria-dominated world to the appearance of Phanerozoic Animal-dominated ecosystems was paved with Algae-rich environments akin to those preferred by modern Eumetazoan Animals. Although morphologically and possibly phylogenetically distinct from Phanerozoic Animals, the large organisms of the Ediacaran Biota were a part of newly established nutrient and energy-rich environments that later hosted the Cambrian diversification of Animal life.

See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2020/05/filamentous-connections-between.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/02/ediacaran-fossils-from-taroudant-group.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/putative-discoidal-fossils-from.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/using-ordovician-tafilalt-lagerstatte.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/reconstructing-ediacaran-nilpena.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/ediacaran-trace-fossils-suggest-that.html
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    5. Hello, my name is Thomas Brooke from UK  , i was going through an article and found out about a man called Dr HARRY. i have been suffering from DIVORCES issues with three different women concerning my 1,0 penis size i had to contact the spell caster and herbal healer DR HARRY. FELICITY my 4th wife was on the verge of leaving me for another man just because of my sexual failure .but i stayed positive and believe i could have her back and make her stay. and behold i Dr HARRY helped me enlarge my penis through his herbal medicine cream . FELICITY and i got together again and she was so happy the first night we had sex after using his cream for two weeks and i got 10.5 inches and 8.0 girth. Dr HARRY is such a nice man and honest man who take his patient happiness as his priority, he also helped me stop my cardiac arrest problem. Thanks to him and thanks to God for the gift given to him. If you have any problem whatsoever, contact him on this email: drharrysolution@gmail.com or website https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple Contact him for the following problems and see the great work of Dr HARRY: SPELL (1)If you want your ex back. {2}If you want to be very successful (3)If you are searching for a job (4)You want to be promoted in your office. (5)You want women/men to run after you. (6)If you want a child. (7)You want to be rich. (8)you want to get Marriage Spells (9)Remove Sickness from your body Spells (10)Business spell (11)Lottery winning numbers (12)Bring Back Lost Love CURE PENIS ENLARGEMENT PREMATURE EJACULATION LOW SPERM COUNT ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION HIV/AIDS CURE HERPES CURE INFECTION CURE PILE STROKE HEART  FAILURE CANCER REDUCING OF FATS AND BUMS ASTHMA and many more....... contact him on this email: drharrysolution@gmail.com or website https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple or whatsapp him directly on +2349036417079  

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    6. Hello everyone i Am williams pater and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,olu I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,OLU and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drolusolutionhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR OLU for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil  drolusolutionhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348140654426 ] 

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  2. BEST  LOVE SPELL CASTER TO GET YOUR EX LOVER, HUSBAND, WIFE, GIRLFRIEND OR BOYFRIEND BACK. ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP:  +2348124644470  

    I am very happy today with my family. My name is Joann Vera from USA i am 34 years old , My husband left me for good 1 years now, and i love him so much, i have been looking for a way to get him back since then. i have tried many options but he did not come back, until i met a friend that darted me to PRIEST WISDOM  a powerful spell caster, who helped me to bring back my husband after 2 days. Me and my husband are living happily together today, That man is great, you can contact him via email supernaturalspell1@gmail.com … Now i will advice any serious persons that found themselves in this kind of problem to contact him now a fast solution without stress.. He is always there to help you , now i call him my father.contact him now he is always online or email (supernaturalspell@yahoo.com  ) or contact him on his WhatsApp mobile line +2348124644470 
    MORE INFO @  https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/

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  3. LOVE SPELL CASTER (DR. GBOJIE) THAT HELPED ME RESTORE MY RELATIONSHIP 
     I was absolutely desperate to get my husband back. Life without my husband was a real mess for me and my children. i wanted a dramatic change and I thought love spell could be the solution. After discussing the resolution with Him, he gave me hope that he will restore my marriage. I felt confident that he will actually make my husband to return home and he did! It’s fantastic what this great spell caster has done for me, his help is priceless! I don’t know what I would have done without his help, He does his job so well he is organized and highly functional, i believe he is the best service to use i can count on when it comes to restoring relationship, I was floored that his worked was perfect, if you need help, ️ ️ ️ ️ ️ ️ ️ ️ gbojiespiritualtemple@gmail.com or whatsapp :  +2349066410185 check out his website :http://gbojiespiritualtemple.website2.me    

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  4. BEST SPELL CASTER WHO CAN HELP YOU WITH LOVE-SPELL TO GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK URGENTLY AFTER BREAKUP/DIVORCE EVEN IF YOUR SITUATION SEEMS HOPELESS! CONTACT: DOCTOR0LOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM IS CERTAINLY THE BEST SPELL CASTER ONLINE AND HIS RESULT IS 100% GUARANTEE..  
    Today being the most happiest day of my life after 1 year of sadness and sorrow without being with the one i love so much, i tried all my possible best to make sure i make my lover happy but it never seems to work out well it was like am doing everything in vain but all thanks to Dr love0 for coming to change all my worries and sadness to Joy. i knew the great man when i read some wonderful reviews about Dr love0 how he has helped a lots of people on there relationship problem i was reading a magazine which then i saw great testimonies as well which then i decided not to waste time because i have missed my lover so much i decided to contact him and share all my problem with him which then he told me not to worry that he assures me that within 48 hours everything would be sorted out i believed Dr love0 so much because i believe he can’t fail me but truly Dr love0 never failed me cos a man that stand on his worlds is really a man,my husband who left me for a year plus replied my text and for the first time returned my calls and asked me to please forgive him i was so happy and so grateful to Dr love0 for what he has done for me. if you are there passing through this same problem or of any kinds just contact this great man on email:( doctor0lovespell@gmail.com ) check his blogs: https://doctorlovespell0.blogspot.com/  or check website:  https://doctor0lovespell.wixsite.com/lovespell or visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Love-Spell-Doctor0-107453264273672/

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  5. Life has not been so easy for me, i almost gave up after been diagnosed with stage 2 cancer. I have tried many treatment including chemo and still didn't work for me, so i was going place to place just for me to search for herbs cure or any solution to my problem and i also have three kids to take care of, that same period my husband die in an accident on his way coming home, so life was very tough for me. so when i was going through the herbs site to find a cure for my problem i saw a story about a lady testify about DR. EDES, so i said to my self let me give a try to see if my problem can be solved, because i have spend alot of money In the hospital and there was no cure for it, so i contacted DR.EDES that afternoon of it and he gave me instruction how i will go about it and he sent me a herbal medicine which I took according to the way he instructed me to do. After taking the medicine for two weeks i saw changes on my body, then i called the Dr and told him about it and he said i should go for test. i can't believe when my result came out my cancer was gone and my family doctor was surprised too after seeing the result , i am very happy to share this great testimony to the world that there is real cure for CANCER. you can also contact DR.EDES Email: dredeshome@gmail.com also reach him on WhatsApp +2348151937428 https://dredesherbal.webs.com
    He also have herbal medicine to cure the following diseases; DIABETES, LUPUS, GOUT, HEPATITIS A&B, INFERTILITY, HIV/AIDS, CANCER, WART,ALS CURE,EPILEPSY,LOOSE WEIGHT, MISCARRIAGE,STROKE, FIBROID, PSORIASIS, PREGNANCY HERBAL MEDICINE, ITCHING, BAD BREATH, HERPES AND MANY MORE

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  6. FINALLY FREE FROM HERPES VIRUSI thought my life had nothing to offer anymore because life became meaningless to me because I had herpes virus, the symptoms became very severe and bold and made my family run from and abandoned me so they won't get infected. I gave up everything, my hope, dreams,vision and job because the doctor told me there's no cure. I consumed so many drugs but they never cured me but hid the symptoms inside me making it worse. I was doing some research online someday when I came across testimonies of some people of how DR ADIGBA cured them from herpes, I never believed at first and thought it was a joke but later decided to contact him on the details provided and when I messaged him we talked and he sent me his herbal medicine and told me to go for a test after two weeks. Within 7 days of medication the symptoms disappeared and when I went for a test Lo and behold I was NEGATIVE by the Doctor Who tested me earlier. Thank you DR ADIGBA because I forever owe you my life and I'll keep on telling the world about you. If you are going through same situation worry no more and contact DR ADIGBA via dradigba@gmail. com or WhatsApp him via +2348077875210. he is good too to cure all type of disease and virus. 1 HIV cure 2 cancer 3 diabetes 4 hepatitis 5 herpes. You can contact if you are having any problem... 

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  7. Hello everyone. Dr. Razor Herbs is a good remedy for herpes Virus , I was a carrier of herpes virus and I saw a testimony on how Dr. Razor cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 18 days before asking me to go for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm HSV 2 Negative after the test, Today i am so happy because i'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr. Razor. Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Razor herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible. you can reach him on his email, i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure.Contact Dr Razor via email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com call or whatsApp him on +2349065420442

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  8. Hello everyone. Dr. Razor Herbs is a good remedy for herpes Virus , I was a carrier of herpes virus and I saw a testimony on how Dr. Razor cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 18 days before asking me to go for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm HSV 2 Negative after the test, Today i am so happy because i'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr. Razor. Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Razor herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible. you can reach him on his email, i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure.Contact Dr Razor via email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com call or whatsApp him on +2349065420442

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  9. Hello everyone. Dr. Razor Herbs is a good remedy for herpes Virus , I was a carrier of herpes virus and I saw a testimony on how Dr. Razor cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 18 days before asking me to go for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm HSV 2 Negative after the test, Today i am so happy because i'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr. Razor. Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Razor herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible. you can reach him on his email, i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure.Contact Dr Razor via email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com call or whatsApp him on +2349065420442

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  10. I am so happy to be finally cured of herpes simplex virus  by herbalist Razor,Ever since i was diagnosed with the virus i have been using medical drugs to suppress it, i later realized it was causing more damage to my health than the virus,i opted for herbs and got to find out about the great work herbalist Doctor razor have been doing with his herbal remedy. i contacted him and he promised to help me get rid of it,after 4 days i received a package fro the delivery service and it was from the doctor who sent me the herbal treatment in Dallas,Texas USA, And he instructed me on how i was going too take in for the 18 days. After completing the dosage he told e to go for a medical checkup and when i did the doctors conducted some test on me but they were stunned that my status was now negative,they conducted several test on me to be sure. i even went to Medical City Dallas Hospital, where they conducted another test and it was still negative. I am so grateful to you herbal doctor razor , God will continue to prosper you,i pray the world gets to know about you and your herbal exploits. Reach him on his email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com Whatsapp/Call his cell phone on +2349065420442. PLEASE SHARE , SO THE WORLD CAN GET TO KNOW ABOUT HIM

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  11. I am so happy to be finally cured of herpes simplex virus  by herbalist Razor,Ever since i was diagnosed with the virus i have been using medical drugs to suppress it, i later realized it was causing more damage to my health than the virus,i opted for herbs and got to find out about the great work herbalist Doctor razor have been doing with his herbal remedy. i contacted him and he promised to help me get rid of it,after 4 days i received a package fro the delivery service and it was from the doctor who sent me the herbal treatment in Dallas,Texas USA, And he instructed me on how i was going too take in for the 18 days. After completing the dosage he told e to go for a medical checkup and when i did the doctors conducted some test on me but they were stunned that my status was now negative,they conducted several test on me to be sure. i even went to Medical City Dallas Hospital, where they conducted another test and it was still negative. I am so grateful to you herbal doctor razor , God will continue to prosper you,i pray the world gets to know about you and your herbal exploits. Reach him on his email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com Whatsapp/Call his cell phone on +2349065420442. PLEASE SHARE , SO THE WORLD CAN GET TO KNOW ABOUT HIM

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  12. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Hepatitis negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358

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