Friday, 22 May 2020

Scolanthus shrimp & Scolanthus celticus: Two new species of Burrowing Sea Anemones from the Celtic Sea.

Burrowing Sea Anemones are characterized by an elongate body and round proximal end that anchors the animal into mud, sand, or gravel, leaving only the tentacle crown exposed. Edwardsiids are easily distinguishable from other Burrowing Anemones by their distinctive mesentery arrangement of eight unpaired macrocnemes (divisions within the gastrovascular cavity created by folded membranes) at midcolumn with microcnemes located only distally at the base of tentacles. The Edwardsiidae is among the most speciose taxon in the Order Actiniaria with 10 genera and approximately 95 valid species distributed worldwide from polar to tropical zones, including hypersaline environments and Antarctic ice, and from depths of  0–3550 m. Though Edwardsiids may be frequently collected in biodiversity surveys, oceanographic expeditions, and ecological monitoring projects, their identification is difficult due to the high number of undescribed species, their small size and need for histological examination for specific identification, and the small number of specialists able to identify them.

In a paper published in the American Museum Novitates on 12 February 2020, Luciana Gusmão of the Division of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History, Cherie Qu of the Science Research Mentoring Program at the American Museum of Natural History, and Bard High School Early College, Sadie Burke, also of the Science Research Mentoring Program at the American Museum of Natural History, and of Baruch College Campus High School, and Estefanía Rodríguez, also of the Division of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History, describe two new species of Edwardsiid Burrowing Sea Anemones from Whittard Canyon off the southwestern coast of Ireland.

The genera Scolanthus and Edwardsianthus belong to the subfamily Edwardsiinae, which is characterised by having nemathybomes; hollow, epidermis-lined, nematocyst-dense pockets sunk into the mesoglea of the column. Species of Scolanthus are differentiated from other members of the subfamily by having nemathybomes with basitrichs and periderm not only on the scapus but also the proximal end (not a true physa), at least eight microcnemes at the base of tentacles, and 16 or more tentacles in adults. Half of the diversity of Scolanthus has been described in the last 10 years, with most species recorded from the Pacific Ocean. The remaining species are known from the Mediterranean, and Caribbean seas, the southwestern Atlantic, and the North Atlantic. Scolanthus intermedius is the only species recorded in more than one ocean; it is found in the Atlantic portion of the Southern Ocean and Chilean Pacific. Most Scolanthus spp. have been recorded from shallow waters, with only four species known from waters deeper than 100 m: Scolanthus ingolfi (1461 m), Scolanthus nidarosiensis (125–150 m), Scolanthus intermedius (223 m), and Scolanthus triangulus (71–271 m). 

Specimens were collected by the R/V Celtic Explorer during the 2014 Ecosystem Functioning and Biodiscovery Expedition at Whittard Canyon, a multibranch system of submarine canyons some 400 km southwest of Cork, Ireland.

Map of type localities for Scolanthus shrimp (triangle), and Scolanthus celticus (star), at Whittard Canyon in the North Atlantic. Gusmão et al. (2020).

The first new species described is named Scolanthus shrimp, where 'shrimp' honours the Science Research Mentoring Program at the American Museum of Natural History, which suports high school students, known informally as srmpers. The Science Research Mentoring Program supported Cherie Qu, Sadie Burke, and Luciana Gusmão. The specimen from which the species is described is elongate, wider proximally than distally, 2.3–5.1 mm in diameter and 15 mm in height. The epidermis of the entire body is covered by a thin periderm and nemathybomes. The column is dark beige with eight mesenterial insertion visible when alive; the preserved specimen is yellow with mesenterial insertion visible. The proximal end is rounded, and not externally differentiated from rest of column; the body divided into in aboral end, scapus, scapulus, and capitulum. The periderm is thin, tightly adherent, not deciduous, and covers the column and nemathybomes from the distal scapus to the proximal end. The nemathybomes single, conspicuous, and irregularly scattered on the entire body, but forming eight rows more visible in distal column perhaps due to contraction. There are sixteen small tentacles, arranged in two cycles, presumably all of same size; tentacle length is up to 1.5 mm; these were light orange in the live specimen, and white in the preserved state. Though the description of Scolanthus shrimp is based on a single specimen, the specimen was well preserved and all external and internal characters were easily described.

External anatomy of Scolanthus shrimp. (A) Lateral view of live specimen; (B) lateral view of preserved specimen showing nemathybomes arranged in rows on scapus; (C) aboral view of the holotype showing nemathybomes on proximal end; (D) detail of distal scapus with nemathybomes scarcely present distributed in rows; (E) detail of nemathybomes on column; (F) oral view of holotype with oral disc and 16 tentacles. Scale bars: (A), (E) 1 mm; (B) 5 mm; (C) 3.5 mm; (D) 2.5 mm; (F) 2 mm. Gusmão et al. (2020).

The second new species is named Scolanthus celticus, where 'celticus' honours the Celtic Explorer, a multipurpose research vessel operated by the Marine Institute in Galway, Ireland, which collected specimens of the new species. This species is described from four specimens. All specimens are elongate but stout, robust, wider proximally than distally, 5–10 mm in diameter, and 14–24 mm in height. The proximal end is rounded, externally differentiated from rest of column but not true physa; the body divided in aboral end, scapus, scapulus, and capitulum. All preserved specimens with distal column and oral disc retracted, including part of scapus, scapulus, and capitulum; the tentacles not visible. The epidermis of the entire body is covered by a thick periderm and nemathybomes. the periderm is thick, rusty brown, tightly adherent, deciduous, and covers the column and nemathybomes from distal scapus to proximal end. The nemathybomes conspicuous, irregularly scattered on body, single or compound, and more aggregated on the proximal end due to contraction of body. There are sixteen small tentacles, arranged in two cycles, presumably all of same size; tentacle length is up to 3 mm. The four specimens were collected in a single collection site in the Whittard Canyon approximately 450 km from the southwest coast of Ireland, North Atlantic, at 1130 m depth. Scolanthus celticus was collected less than 30 km from the type locality of Scolanthus shrimp, suggesting a pattern of sympatry common among Edwardsiids

External anatomy of Scolanthus celticus. (A) Lateral view of live specimen; (B) lateral view of preserved specimen showing thick periderm on scapus; (C) oral view of proximal end with periderm and nemathybomes; (D) detail of nemathybomes on proximal scapus. Scale bars: (A) 10 mm; (B) 6 mm; (C)–(D) 3.8 mm. Gusmão et al. (2020).

The vermiform body without marginal sphincter or basilar muscles and the mesenterial arrangement of eight macrocnemes spanning the body with microcnemes restricted to the base of tentacles in Scolanthus shrimp and Scolanthus celticus clearly place them within superfamily Edwardsioidea and family Edwardsiidae. Molecular data complement the morphological data: the taxonomic position of Scolanthus shrimp and Scolanthus celticus within Edwardsiidae is further supported by the phylogenetic analysis, which places both species within a highly supported Edwardsioidea. In addition, both new species are recovered with high support within a clade of six species corresponding to the subfamily Edwardsiinae, suggesting that nemathybomes are a strong synapomorphy for the group. Gusmão et al. found a close relationship between Scolanthus and Edwardsianthus, which is supported by three morphological features (i.e., discontinuous ciliated tracts, ovoid parietal muscle, and mesoglea of the aboral end equal in thickness to that of the column). Although the limited taxon sampling and lack of resolution within Edwardsiidae in the analyses of Gusmão et al.'s broad data set prevent them from further commenting on the relationships of Edwardsia, Scolanthus, and Edwardsianthus and of those and other Edwardsiids, the analysis of the more focused data set helped clarify relationships within family Edwardsiidae.

See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/01/scolanthus-ene-scolanthus-isei-and.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2017/12/the-fate-of-fish-hosting-anemones.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2014/06/a-new-species-of-burrowing-sea-anemone.html
Follow Sciency Thoughts on Facebook.

27 comments:


  1. Good day to all viewer online am so happy sharing this great testimony on how i was checking for solution in the internet then miraculously i came Across Dr.LOSA the powerful herbalist that Cure Numerous individuals Herpes Simplex Virus,so I contacted him base on the testimonies I?m seeing about him on the internet, I was cured too by him, kindly contact him actoday through his email he can help you email ; dr.losaherbalhome@gmail.com and so he can cure types of diseases like,HEPATITIS B,DIABETICS,CANCER,HPV,LOW SPERM CAM HIV/STDS FIBROSIS LOST OF WEIGHT .. all thank to you Dr LOSA for your kindly help in my life his Mobile whatsapp number +2349056464736

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This is the most wonderful thing i have ever experienced. I visited a forum here on the internet on the 17 June 2018, and i saw a marvelous testimonies on the forum about the good works Dr love0. Am from the United States. I never believed it, because have never heard anything about such miracle before. No body would have been able to convince me about it not until Dr love0 did a marvelous work for me that restored my marriage of 4 years by getting back my divorced wife within 48 hours just as i read on the internet. I was truly shocked when my wife came home pleading for forgiveness to accept her back. Am really short of words to show my appreciation to Dr love0. For he's a God sent to me and my entire family for divine restoration of marriage. Are you in need of any help whatsoever? Don't hesitate to get in touch with him now.  You can contact him Via email (doctor0lovespell@gmail.com) check his blogs: https://doctorlovespell0.blogspot.com/  or check website:  https://doctor0lovespell.wixsite.com/lovespell or visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Love-Spell-Doctor0-107453264273672/     He also specializes on the follow;
      Divorce reconciliation
      Marriage reconciliation
      Business growth
      Promotion in your place of work/office
      Making banks to grants loans
      Cures of diseases such as; Cancer, hiv, aids, herpes E.T.C.
      Getting your EX/lover back
      Getting your wife/husband back
      Getting your boyfriend/girlfriend back 

      Delete
    2. Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
      ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

      https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

      Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

      Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

      WhatsApp +2347059715465 .






      Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
      ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

      https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

      Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

      Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

      WhatsApp +2347059715465 .






      Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
      ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

      https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

      Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

      Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

      WhatsApp +2347059715465 .

      Delete
    3. Hello everyone i Am williams pater and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,olu I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,OLU and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drolusolutionhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR OLU for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil  drolusolutionhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348140654426 ] 

      Delete
    4. I want to thank Dr Emu a very powerful spell caster who help me to bring my husband back to me, few month ago i have a serious problem with my husband, to the extend that he left the house, and he started dating another woman and he stayed with the woman, i tried all i can to bring him back, but all my effort was useless until the day my friend came to my house and i told her every thing that had happened between me and my husband, then she told me of a powerful spell caster who help her when she was in the same problem I then contact Dr Emu and told him every thing and he told me not to worry my self again that my husband will come back to me after he has cast a spell on him, i thought it was a joke, after he had finish casting the spell, he told me that he had just finish casting the spell, to my greatest surprise within 48 hours, my husband really came back begging me to forgive him, if you need his help you can contact him with via email: Emutemple@gmail.com or add him up on his whatsapp +2347012841542 is willing to help any body that need his help.
      Website: http://emutemple.website2.me/

      Delete
    5. i want to testify of how DR MOSES  herbal mixture cream enlarged my penis size. i never thought i will be happy again in my life because of my small penis situation,i have struggling with this issue my life time and i could not find a professional result i wanted ,i ave went to hospitals,used vaccines,tried several herbs online ,penis pumps and all but none rendered me the solution i wanted ,i felt like killing when my fiance KIMBERLY left me after undressing myself in front of her,my size was too embarrassing and shameful imagine a 37 years old man like me having 3.5 inches penis size..the world seem to an end to me when she left,  one faithful day as i was watching a video on you tube i saw on the comments of one MR PAUL HAVERSACK testifying of this great herbal healer DR MOSES helped him enlarge his penis .i was shocked and happy so i quickly visited his website and emailed him within 30 mins he got back to me and told me all i need to buy and i did so after 4 days i received his herbal medicine ,he gave me instructions on how to use it ,as i am speaking to you people now after using the cream for just two weeks my penis size is 10 inches long and 8.0 girth ,,am so happy and grateful for his work in my life thank you so much Dr MOSES ,,i also learnt he has cure for LOW SPERM COUNT,PREMATURE EJACULATION,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,HIV/AIDS VIRUS,DIABETES 1/2,HERPES DISEASE,CANCER,and lots more you can email him on ( buba.herbalmiraclemedicine@gmail.com ) or call/whats-app him directly on +2349060529305 thanks or you can call me 05019914802 am from Royal Arkansas united state or You can go through is website https://bubaherbalmiraclemedicine.wordpress.com/

      Delete
  2. Hello everyone, Are you looking for a professional trader, forex and binary manager who will help you trade and manager your account with a good and massive amount of profit in return. you can contact MR. GAVIN RAY for your investment plan inorder to get started. for he helped me earned 11,300usd with a little investment money. Gavin ray you're the best trader I can recommend for anyone who wants to invest and trade with a genuine trader, he also helps in recovery of loss funds..you can contact him on his Email: gavinray78@gmail.com WhatsApp: +1 (217) 963-5382

    ReplyDelete
  3. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Hepatitis negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358

    ReplyDelete
  4. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Hepatitis negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358

    ReplyDelete
  5. QUICK RELIABLE CURE, Am so glad expressing my profound gratitude to a man that is so concerned about other people's well being. I was suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) over 4 years, i have spent thousands of dollars in buying expensive drugs and visiting several hospitals in different countries, i was really in severe pain "until" one glorious morning, i read about Doctor Razor on the internet on how he had helped and cured so many people suffering from HERPES 1&2, HPV, CANCER, HIV/AIDS, ALZHEIMER, FIBROID, ENLARGED PROSTATE, HEMORRHOIDS' PILE and HEART DISEASE ETC. So i contacted him through this Email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com and i shared my problems with him, he gave me the healing procedure and i followed them. 18 days later he told me to go for a medical test, behold the result was negative, now am (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS)  Negative. I just want to use this platform to thank Doctor Razor for curing me from that deadly virus and also for exposing his herbal cure to the world, please you can as well contact him at drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com (or) Whatsapp/Call him +2349065420442 for solutions to your health problems

    ReplyDelete
  6. QUICK RELIABLE CURE, Am so glad expressing my profound gratitude to a man that is so concerned about other people's well being. I was suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) over 4 years, i have spent thousands of dollars in buying expensive drugs and visiting several hospitals in different countries, i was really in severe pain "until" one glorious morning, i read about Doctor Razor on the internet on how he had helped and cured so many people suffering from HERPES 1&2, HPV, CANCER, HIV/AIDS, ALZHEIMER, FIBROID, ENLARGED PROSTATE, HEMORRHOIDS' PILE and HEART DISEASE ETC. So i contacted him through this Email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com and i shared my problems with him, he gave me the healing procedure and i followed them. 18 days later he told me to go for a medical test, behold the result was negative, now am (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS)  Negative. I just want to use this platform to thank Doctor Razor for curing me from that deadly virus and also for exposing his herbal cure to the world, please you can as well contact him at drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com (or) Whatsapp/Call him +2349065420442 for solutions to your health problems

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hello everyone, Are you looking for a professional trader, forex and binary manager who will help you trade and manager your account with a good and massive amount of profit in return. you can contact MR. GAVIN RAY for your investment plan inorder to get started. for he helped me earned 11,300usd with a little investment money. Gavin ray you're the best trader I can recommend for anyone who wants to invest and trade with a genuine trader, he also helps in recovery of loss funds..you can contact him on his Email: gavinray78@gmail.com WhatsApp: +1 (217) 963-5382

    ReplyDelete
  8. I am here to testify how great man called Dr Razor who helped me out with his herbal mixture which he prepared for me,i was battling with HSV2 for 5 years. I took his product  for (18) days,during this period i was noticing some changes in my health and i promised him that i was going to testify to his name on my healing to the whole world about how he cured me which I am very happy I am doing now , Dr Razor also cure all kinds of diseases , HEPATITIS, A,B,C,D,E. CANCER, DIABETES , FIBROID , please you can get him contacted on his email drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp or call on +2349065420442 

    ReplyDelete
  9. I am here to testify how great man called Dr Razor who helped me out with his herbal mixture which he prepared for me,i was battling with HSV2 for 5 years. I took his product  for (18) days,during this period i was noticing some changes in my health and i promised him that i was going to testify to his name on my healing to the whole world about how he cured me which I am very happy I am doing now , Dr Razor also cure all kinds of diseases , HEPATITIS, A,B,C,D,E. CANCER, DIABETES , FIBROID , please you can get him contacted on his email drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp or call on +2349065420442 

    ReplyDelete
  10. I am here to testify how great man called Dr Razor who helped me out with his herbal mixture which he prepared for me,i was battling with HSV2 for 5 years. I took his product  for (18) days,during this period i was noticing some changes in my health and i promised him that i was going to testify to his name on my healing to the whole world about how he cured me which I am very happy I am doing now , Dr Razor also cure all kinds of diseases , HEPATITIS, A,B,C,D,E. CANCER, DIABETES , FIBROID , please you can get him contacted on his email drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp or call on +2349065420442 

    ReplyDelete
  11. I want to thank Dr Emu a very powerful spell caster who help me to bring my husband back to me, few month ago i have a serious problem with my husband, to the extend that he left the house, and he started dating another woman and he stayed with the woman, i tried all i can to bring him back, but all my effort was useless until the day my friend came to my house and i told her every thing that had happened between me and my husband, then she told me of a powerful spell caster who help her when she was in the same problem I then contact Dr Emu and told him every thing and he told me not to worry my self again that my husband will come back to me after he has cast a spell on him, i thought it was a joke, after he had finish casting the spell, he told me that he had just finish casting the spell, to my greatest surprise within 48 hours, my husband really came back begging me to forgive him, if you need his help you can contact him with via email: Emutemple@gmail.com or add him up on his whatsapp +2347012841542 is willing to help any body that need his help.
    Website: http://emutemple.website2.me/

    ReplyDelete
  12. I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 1year now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to me in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor  Dr Alika who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...then i contact Dr Alika and he replied me and explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through UPS Delivery Service and I took it according to the way Dr Alika instructed, I was so happy after 14days I took the medicine there was a very big changes in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Alika to get ride of these Herpes Virus forever contact him via email on dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp/call him on  +2348116570358.

    ReplyDelete
  13. I am Monisha Alexis, I promise to share this testimony all over the world once my boyfriend returns back to me, and today with all due respect I want to thank DR.ONIHA for bringing joy and happiness to my relationship and my family. I want to inform you all that there is a spell caster that is real and genuine. I never believed in any of these things until I lost my boyfriend, I required help until I found a great spell caster, And he cast a love spell for me, and he assured me that I will get my boyfriend back in two days after the spell has been cast. Three days later, my phone rang, and so shockingly, it was my boyfriend who has not called me for the past 6 years now, and made an apology for the heart break, and told me that he is ready to be my backbone till the rest of his life with me. DR.ONIHA released him to know how much I loved and wanted him. And opened his eyes to picture how much we have shared together. As I`m writing this testimony right now I`m the happiest girl on earth and me and my boyfriend are living a happy life and our love is now stronger than how it was even before our break up. So that`s why I promised to share my testimony all over the universe. All thanks goes to DR.ONIHA for the excessive work that he has done for me. Below is the email address in any situation you are undergoing, it may be a heart break, and I assure you that as he has done mine for me, he will definitely help you too. 
    EMAIL: ONIHASPELLTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM
    WEBSITE: http://onihaspelltemple.com 
    CALL/WHATSAPP : +16692213962. 

    ReplyDelete
  14. i want to testify of how DR MOSES  herbal mixture cream enlarged my penis size. i never thought i will be happy again in my life because of my small penis situation,i have struggling with this issue my life time and i could not find a professional result i wanted ,i ave went to hospitals,used vaccines,tried several herbs online ,penis pumps and all but none rendered me the solution i wanted ,i felt like killing when my fiance KIMBERLY left me after undressing myself in front of her,my size was too embarrassing and shameful imagine a 37 years old man like me having 3.5 inches penis size..the world seem to an end to me when she left,  one faithful day as i was watching a video on you tube i saw on the comments of one MR PAUL HAVERSACK testifying of this great herbal healer DR MOSES helped him enlarge his penis .i was shocked and happy so i quickly visited his website and emailed him within 30 mins he got back to me and told me all i need to buy and i did so after 4 days i received his herbal medicine ,he gave me instructions on how to use it ,as i am speaking to you people now after using the cream for just two weeks my penis size is 10 inches long and 8.0 girth ,,am so happy and grateful for his work in my life thank you so much Dr MOSES ,,i also learnt he has cure for LOW SPERM COUNT,PREMATURE EJACULATION,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,HIV/AIDS VIRUS,DIABETES 1/2,HERPES DISEASE,CANCER,and lots more you can email him on ( buba.herbalmiraclemedicine@gmail.com ) or call/whats-app him directly on +2349060529305 thanks or you can call me 05019914802 am from Royal Arkansas united state or You can go through is website https://bubaherbalmiraclemedicine.wordpress.com/

    ReplyDelete
  15. My Name is Dr abaka you can Contact Me via Email drabakatemple@gmail.com For Penis Enlargement Product to help you get as long as 8inches Long with good Erection. Contact Me Via Email : drabakatemple@gmail.com   Via WhatsApp +2347010538590 

    ReplyDelete
  16. God bless Dr. USELU for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS since 2018 and I was taking my medications, I wasn’t satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. USELU , how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine within 3 days. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 2weeks later i was cured from HERPES contact him via email (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) once again thanks to you Dr. USELU cure the flowing virus, contact his email or add him on whatsapp (+2348132015009) cancer cure
    diabetes cure
    ringing ear
    herpes cure
    warts cure
    HPV cure
    HIV cure
    get your ex back
    pregnancy herbal medicine
    Hepatitis  

    ReplyDelete
  17. My name is Mrs Aisha Mohamed, am a Citizen Of Qatar.Have you been looking for a loan?Do you need an urgent personal loan or business loan?contact Dr James Eric Finance Home he help me with a loan of $42,000 some days ago after been scammed of $2,800 from a woman claiming to been a loan lender but i thank God today that i got my loan worth $42,000.Feel free to contact the company for a genuine financial service. Email:(financialserviceoffer876@gmail.com) call/whats-App Contact Number +918929509036

    ReplyDelete
  18. Thank you for the valuable content. I also have a website from my country. If you have free time, visit รักษาริดสีดวงด้วยตัวเอง

    ReplyDelete
  19. I want to share a testimony of how Dr.Osemuhau herbal mixture cream saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing,and i was also having weak erection problem. I can't make love to my wife and my penis was just too small a full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame to me. My wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor,she never enjoyed sex,i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until when i saw a testimony of how Dr.Osemuhau herbal mixture cream have been helping people regarding their sex life, so i decided to give him a try and to my greatest surprise in less than one week of taking the herbs my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 8 inches and i do not have week erection again. I can make love to my wife longer in bed. And my marriage is now stable,my wife now enjoy me very well in bed. can contact him drosemuhau@gmail.com {) or call or what-apps him through +2348168714427 or  https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Osemuhau-Herbal-Medicine-111115653769173

    ReplyDelete
  20. Do you need to hack into any, databaseserver spy on Facebook,Emails, Whatsapp, Viber, Snapchat, Instagram and many more.
    I urge you to get in touch with the best people for the job, i have confirm the service when i need to spy on my spouse phone. They are good at Phone Cloning and Bitcoin/binary minning and any other hack job.
    Thanks guys for the team work HACKINTECHNOLOGYATGMAILDOTCOM
    www.hackintechnology.com
    +12132951376(WHATSAPP)

    ReplyDelete
  21. I am a private money lender and Investor, Do you need a legit, honest, reputable and quick loan? I can help you with 100% guarantee loan, I am offering business and individual loan, More also we finance all kind of projects. Waiting to hear from you to enable us send you the loan application form or for more details contact


    CONTACT LENDER COMPANY:

    C.E.O. Deby Johnson.
    debyfinancingloans@gmail.com
    Whatsapp Number: +447459797459
    Whatsapp Number: +918375004762
    DEBY FINANCING LOANS COMPANY

    ReplyDelete
  22. Investing online has been a main source of income,that's why knowledge plays a very important role in humanity,you don't need to over work yourself for money.All you need is the right information,and you could build your own wealth from the comfort of your home!Binary trading is dependent on timely signals,assets or controlled strategies which when mastered increases chance of winning up to 90%-100% with trading. It’s possible to earn $10,000 to $20,000 trading weekly-monthly,just file a complaint with  Robert,I had almost given up on everything about binary trading and ever getting my lost funds back,till i met with him,with his help now i have my lost funds back to my bank account and I can now trade successfully with his profitable strategies and software!! Email: Robertseaman939@gmail.com or Fb.me/investandmakemoney1 or  whatsApp: +44 7466 770724

    ReplyDelete