Monday, 6 April 2020

Astreptolabis laevis: A new species of Earwig from Cretaceous Burmese Amber.

Earwigs, Dermaptera, are one of the smaller orders of Insects and consist of approximately 2000 modern species segregated into 12 families. These are distinctive Insects, with their generally flattened appearances, often leathery integument, tegminized forewings, broad fan-shaped hind wings, and, most distinctive of all, the terminal forceps formed of their modified cerci. Within the Dermaptera, the modern fauna falls entirely within the suborder Neodermaptera, with the earliest definitive Neodermaptera are found in the Lower Cretaceous. There have been 22 Neodermapteran Earwigs described from Cretaceous amber. Of these, six are classified in the extant family Pygidicranidae, including four adults and two nymphs. Although the record of Earwigs preserved in Cretaceous and Cenozoic amber has grown rapidly, well-preserved specimens of adult earwigs are still rather uncommon and it remains a difficulty to associate nymphs with adults when not found as syninclusions. Moreover, the precise phylogenetic placement of many fossil Earwigs continues to be poorly understood.

It a paper published in the journal ZooKeys on 12 February 2020, Yue Mao of the College of Life Sciences and Academy for Multidisciplinary Studies at Capital Normal University, Michael Engel of the Division of Entomology at the Natural History Museum, and Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology at the University of Kansas, and the Division of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History, and Dong Ren and Taiping Gao, also of the College of Life Sciences and Academy for Multidisciplinary Studies at Capital Normal University, describe a new species of Pygidicranid Earwig from Middle Cretaceous Burmese Amber.

Cretaceous ‘Burmese Amber’ has been extensively worked at several sites across northern Myanmar (though mostly in Kachin State) in the last 20 years. The amber is fairly clear, and often found in large chunks, providing an exceptional window into the Middle Cretaceous Insect fauna. This amber is thought to have started out as the resin of a Coniferous Tree, possibly a Cypress or an Araucaria, growing in a moist tropical forest. This amber has been dated to between 105 and 95 million years old, based upon pollen inclusions, and to about 98.8 million years by uranium/lead dating of ash inclusions in the amber.

The new species is placed in the genus Astreptolabis, which currently contains one other species, Astreptolabis ethirosomatia, also from Burmese Amber, and given the specific name laevis, meaning, 'polished' or  'smooth', in reference the integumental surface (skin) of the species. Astreptolabis laevis is described from three specimens, two females and a male with its genitalia partly exerted (the male genetalia is considered important in the classification of Insects, but is seldom preserved in fossils.The specimens were collected from mines in the Hukawng Valley of Kachin; the amber mines are located at the north end of Noije Bum village, approximately  18 km southwest of Tanai.

 Astreptolabis laevis, holotype, CNU-DER-MA2018001, female. (A) Photo, (B) line drawing. Scale bars are 0.5 mm. Mao et al. (2020).

The genus Astreptolabis is placed on its own within a separate, extinct, subfamily of the Pygidicranidae, the Astreptolabidinae, which is distinguished by its small size, 3.50–5.30 mm in length, and straight and tubular cerci which, would have been of little use as grasping foreceps. Astreptolabis laevis can be distinguished from Astreptolabis ethirosomatia by the lower number of setae (hairs) on itshead, thorax and tegmina (modified forewings which form a wing case into which the hind wings are folded), and the larger compound eyes, which encompass the entire lateral surface of the head from the antennal articulations to the posterior border.

Astreptolabis laevis, holotype, CNU-DER-MA2018001, female. (A) Photo of pronotum, (B) line drawing of hind wing, (C) photo of legs, (D) photo of vavula. Scale bars: 0.2 mm (A), (C), 0.5 mm (B), 0.1 mm (D). Mao et al. (2020).

The larger of the two female specimens has a total length of 3.61 mm,, the male 5.30 mm. The hind wing of the holotype of Astreptolabis laevis is well preserved, and one is unfolded and extended. The base of the hind wing is obscured because of the position of the specimen, but most of the preserved structures are similar to those of extant Earwigs. The female paratype CNU-DER-MA2018002 shares the same characters with the holotype, but the integument of this paratype is somewhat roughened and the pronotum seems broader than the holotype; however, these differences may be the result of taphonomy. The male paratype CNU-DER-MA2018003 shares the same characters with the holotype except for a larger body size, which seems to be a sexual difference. Otherwise, differences in body size are mainly reflected in tegmen length and abdominal length which are longer than the female, but otherwise proportional.

Astreptolabis laevis, paratype, CNU-DER-MA2018002, female. (A) Photo, (B) line drawing, (C) photo of legs, (D) photo of cerci. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A), (B), 0.2 mm (C), 0.1 mm (D). Mao et al. (2020).

Up to now, many than 1000 species of insects have been reported from Burmese Amber, including Termites, Stick Insects, Scorpionflies, lots of Wasps, Beetles, Lacewings, etc.; however, Earwigs are still quite rare compared to most of the other groups. Astreptolabis spp. are the smallest Earwigs within Pygidicranidae so far, females being as small as about 3.5 mm in length including cerci. Antenna has at least 14 antennomeres, which is an unusually small number for basal Neodermaptera and likely autapomorphic for the subfamily. Although the known representatives are quite peculiar among living and fossil Earwigs, particularly in the straight, tapering, tubular cerci which clearly would have had little force as a grasping structure (contrary to virtually all other Neodermaptera), it has the usual traits typical of the suborder such as the absence of ocelli, the trimerous tarsi, unsegmented cerci, and absence of venation in the tegmina. The straight and tubular cerci which likely did not function for grasping could imply that Astreptolabidines used other strategies for predation, or were scavengers or detritivores and therefore did not hunt. The new species is typical in nearly all traits with the type species, aside from minor differences in largely setation, and proportions of structures. Nonetheless, the new species helps to refine our understanding of the circumscription for the genus and subfamily, and gives us some initial knowledge as to variations that may occur within the lineage. Unfortunately, while it would be revealing to learn more about the structure of the ventral cervical sclerites and thoracic sterna, these cannot be discerned in any of the new specimens and await future discoveries to provide such insights. Nonetheless, the discovery of the male for the group is important, and the uniqueness of the Astreptolabidinae is reinforced by the peculiar features of the male genitalia. Like other Pygidicranidae, the male has two virgae, rather than four terminal virgal sections present in Diplatyidae. However, unlike most other Pygidicranidae the parameres are broader and lack terminal teeth or incisions, and are instead comparatively simple, tapering to an acute apex. These are either specializations apomorphic for the subfamily, or could also suggest that including Astreptolabidinae within Pygidicranidae renders the family paraphyletic. If the latter, then there may be need to elevate the subfamily to family rank, but such a formal decision must await further character data such as the form of the thoracic sterna which could provide evidence of affinity to one or more subfamilies within Pygidicranidae as currently defined. However, the female valvulae slightly extending beyond the subgenital plate is a trait known only among the Pygidicranidae, and this feature in Astreptolabis laevis tends to corroborate its inclusion among pygidicranids. For the time being, the male of Astreptolabis laevis emphasizes the distinctiveness of the lineage and highlights the need to obtain further character data for this group of peculiar, ancient Neodermaptera. If the subfamily were to fall outside of Pygidicranidae it remains uncertain whether it would be basal to the family or more closely related to Epidermaptera, and perhaps information on sternal forms would aid such a determination. The presence of complex, heavily sclerotized accessory structures ventral to the paired distal lobes is at least reminiscent of the accessory structures sometimes found among Diplatyids, although the size and form of those in Astreptolabis are drastically different. If these were homologous, then it might suggest that Astreptolabidinae are intermediate in phylogenetic position between the basal families Diplatyidae, Haplodiplatyidae, and Karschiellidae relative to Pygidicranidae.

Astreptolabis laevis, paratype, CNU-DER-MA2018003, male. (A) Dorsal view, (B) ventral view,
(C) photo of pronotum and legs, (D) photo of male genitalia, (E) enlarged view of male genitalia. Scale bars: 1 mm (A, B), 0.5 mm (C), 0.2 mm (D), 0.1 mm (E). Mao et al. (2020).

Interestingly, the wing morphology of the hind wings of Astreptolabis laevis is quite similar to extant Earwigs. Though the broad attachment and the base of the hind wing is covered by the tegmina, the anal area is relatively clear, and the same areas of folding can be discerned as is found across all Neodermaptera, emphasizing the consistency of this specialization within the order. In addition, the shortened tegmina is known to allow for flexibility in the abdomen and its role in folding the hind wings when not in use and this behavioral repertoire is likely also conserved.

See also...

https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/12/angimordella-burmitina-pollen.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/06/promyrmister-kistneri-new-species-of.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/04/mulleroconis-hyalina-palaeoconis-azari.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2019/04/acalyptomerus-thayerae-sphaerothorax.html
https://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2018/12/electrorana-limoae-new-species-of-frog.htmlhttps://sciencythoughts.blogspot.com/2018/12/strepsiptera-larval-twisted-wing-insect.html
Follow Sciency Thoughts on Facebook.

30 comments:

  1. Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION , the reason why most people are finding it difficult
    to enlarge Penis is because they bedlieve on medical report, drugs and medical treatment which is not helpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are Contact Dr Olu via Email : Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com or via WhatsApp : +2348140654426 for Natural root and herbal remedies put together to help you get Enlarge and Erect healthy.
    Thank you.

























    Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION , the reason why most people are finding it difficult
    to enlarge Penis is because they bedlieve on medical report, drugs and medical treatment which is not helpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are Contact Dr Olu via Email : Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com or via WhatsApp : +2348140654426 for Natural root and herbal remedies put together to help you get Enlarge and Erect healthy.
    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete

  2. Please share as you read okay you may save a soul today,naturalherbs
    are really great, I was cured from HIV positive by a doctor
    called DR ONUWA from West Africa, now I believe that natural
    herbs and roots has their own way of working, based on medical report
    I was told that HIV positive has no cure even when I saw a post
    about Dr ONUWA how he cured many people with his herbal medicine I
    doubted it at first but just decided to give it a try because I was so desperately trying to get rid of my problems not knowing it was going to be the end of this deadly virus in my body, please if you have anyone with this same virus or diseases like this contact Dr ONUWA on EMAIL DRONUWA2@GMAIL.COM I'm a living testimony of his
    herbal medicine and don't forget to share as you read okay,
    please save a soul today

    ReplyDelete
  3. I am here to give my testimony about chief dr lucky who helped me in my life, i want to inform the public how i was cured from herpes simplex virus by chief dr lucky, i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on herpes and i saw comment of people talking about how chief dr lucky cured them. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem, my herpes result came out negative. I pray for you chief dr lucky am cured you can also get your self cured my friends if you really need my doctor help, you can reach him now.
    Email: chiefdrlucky@gmail.com  Call or What's App +2348132777335  
    Website :  http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/ 

    ReplyDelete
  4. Greatest thanks to Dr Oyagu for his herbal drugs that he prepared for me and when i start using it in just 2weeks i was completely cured and that ended my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE i am so happy and grateful to Dr Oyagu . after reading about him on a testimony of Jason Cash on a blogger. i knew suddenly Dr Oyagu was the right Doctor to cure my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE. i discuss with Dr Oyagu and he prepared a herbal medicine for me and when it got sent to me in south korean . i used the herbal medicine and 2weeks and i went to check up again. after 15years of suffering from HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 at last i am smiling once again. Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from your suffering. contact his WhatsApp line: +2348101755322 or his Email:Oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  5. I am so Happy to be writing this article in here, i am here to explore blogs forum about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS . I was positive to the deadly Virus called HERPES and i lost hope completely because i was rejected even by my closet friends. i searched online to know and inquire about cure for HERPES and i saw Dr EDES testimony online on how he was cured so many persons from Herpes Disease. so i decided to contact the great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FEDEX or DHL and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i'm so happy! that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me! and if you need his help,contact his Email: (dredeshome@gmail.com) you can contact him on whatsapp +2348151937428 BLOG https://dredesherbal.webs.com
    He also cure the below listed sickness;
    (1) HERPES,
    (2) DIABETES,
    (3) HIV&AIDS,
    (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
    (5) HEPATITIS B,
    (6) IMPOTENCE,
    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA...

    ReplyDelete
  6. I Can't still believe that i got cured from Genital Herpes through herbal treatment from Dr Oyagu who I met through the internet, I actually couldn't believe it at first because it sounded impossible to me knowing how far I have gone just to get rid of it. Dr Oyagu send me his medicine which I took as instructed and here I am living a happy life once again, a big thanks to Dr Oyagu, I am sure there are many herbal doctors out there but Dr Oyagu did it for me, contact him oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com , also call or whatsApp him on +2348101755322

    ReplyDelete
  7. I want to thank Dr Emu a very powerful spell caster who help me to bring my husband back to me, few month ago i have a serious problem with my husband, to the extend that he left the house, and he started dating another woman and he stayed with the woman, i tried all i can to bring him back, but all my effort was useless until the day my friend came to my house and i told her every thing that had happened between me and my husband, then she told me of a powerful spell caster who help her when she was in the same problem I then contact Dr Emu and told him every thing and he told me not to worry my self again that my husband will come back to me after he has cast a spell on him, i thought it was a joke, after he had finish casting the spell, he told me that he had just finish casting the spell, to my greatest surprise within 48 hours, my husband really came back begging me to forgive him, if you need his help you can contact him with via email: Emutemple@gmail.com or add him up on his whatsapp +2347012841542 is willing to help any body that need his help.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

      Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

      Delete
  8. I Can't still believe that i got cured from Genital Herpes through herbal treatment from Dr Oyagu who I met through the internet, I actually couldn't believe it at first because it sounded impossible to me knowing how far I have gone just to get rid of it. Dr Oyagu send me his medicine which I took as instructed and here I am living a happy life once again, a big thanks to Dr Oyagu, I am sure there are many herbal doctors out there but Dr Oyagu did it for me, contact him oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com , also call or whatsApp him on +2348101755322

    ReplyDelete
  9. I am carla houston from usa. I was in trouble when doctor told me that I have been diagnosed with herpes I though about my children and my husband, I know my children will face a serious problem when I'm gone, I lost hope and I wept all day, but one day I was surfing the internet I found Dr. Alika   contact number. I called him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Alika   herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to Dr. Alika and very happy with my hubby and children.if you have any diseases contact dr alika via email on dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or add him up on  whatsapp +2348116570358.

    ReplyDelete
  10. I am carla houston from usa. I was in trouble when doctor told me that I have been diagnosed with herpes I though about my children and my husband, I know my children will face a serious problem when I'm gone, I lost hope and I wept all day, but one day I was surfing the internet I found Dr. Alika   contact number. I called him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Alika   herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to Dr. Alika and very happy with my hubby and children.if you have any diseases contact dr alika via email on dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or add him up on  whatsapp +2348116570358.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Greetings to the general public, i want to inform the public how i was cured of HERPES Simplex Virus by a Doctor called Dr Akhanene.i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex whicmptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about how  cured them. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, i am a free person now without problem, my HERPES result came out negative. I pray for you Dr Akhanene God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and great man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem, Emai drakhanenespellhome@gmail.com.com or whatsapp or call him +2348168714427

    ReplyDelete
  12. I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete
  13. Dr Aire cure my HIV, I have been a ARV Consumption for 10 years. i have been in pains until i came across Dr Aire on blogs site.I emailed him about my details of my HIV and my location i explained every thing to him and he told me that there is nothing to be scared of that he will cured me, he gave me guarantee,He ask me to pay for items fees so when i'm cured I will show gratitude I did and giving testimony of his healing herbs is what I'm going to do for the rest of you out there having HIV and other disease can see the good work of Dr Aire.I received his herbal medicine through EMS Courier service who delivered to my post office within 5 working days.Dr Aire is an honest man and I appreciate him for his good work.My GrandMa called him to appreciate him and rest of my friends did too,Is a joy to me that I'm free of taking Pills and having that fat belle is a nightmare.you will understand what i'm talking about if you have same problem I was having then not now though.I'm free and healthy Big Thanks To Dr Aire Herbal Center.I have his calendar too that he recently sent me,He Cure all kind disease Like,Cancer,Herpes,Hiv,Hepatitis B,Fibroid,Diabetes,Dercum,Copd ,and also Bring back Ex Lover Back..Here his Contact .drairehome@gmail.com Or Whats_app Number +2347036740271

    ReplyDelete
  14. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Hepatitis negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358.

    ReplyDelete
  15. I want to give a testimony on how I got cured from Herpes Virus. Few months back I was having some symptoms . I went to see a doctor and many blood tests was done on me, later on I was told I had Herpes. My doctor told me that there’s no cure for Herpes I felt bad, I went online searching for a possible cure for Herpes virus, I saw a post of Dr. LUCKY  a herbal doctor that’s helping people get cured from HIV, HEPATITIS B, CANCER e.t.c. I contacted him and I told him how I’m feeling he said his herbal medicine can cure me. He sent me the medicine and I received the medicine some days after he sent it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him. Before the completion of the medication the symptoms stopped. I went to the doctor and carried out another blood test, surprisingly I was negative. I haven’t had any symptoms anymore. Dr. LUCKY  is great, and his herbal medicine has no side effects. You can reach him on his Email:  (drluckyherbalcure@gmail.com) or whatsApp him on; +2348154637647  

    ReplyDelete
  16. I was diagnosed of HERPES Virus in 2016 and I have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medication to cure all kind of diseases including HERPES virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try , when i contact this herbalist via his email and he prepared a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to  via UPS delivery company service, when i received this  cure, he gave me step by directions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was totally cured of this deadly disease within 14days of usage, I am now free from the deadly disease called herpes, all thanks to Dr.AKHANENE you can rich this great herbal doctor via his email: (Drakhanenespellhome@gmail.com)call or whatsapp him on his mobile number +2348168714427

    ReplyDelete
  17. I'm 61 years old, I contracted hpv in 2011' I has be taking lot treatment for it and embarrassed some months ago the wart stated coming out seriously, I used lot recommendation because there was lot warts around my anus and was so . but today I'm totally happy I got the virus eliminated by using natural treatment from Dr Onokun herbal center after his treatment I got cured. all the warts went away' seriously believed Dr Onokun he have the cure for human papillomavirus because he has eliminated hpv been in my body since 2011, Dr Onokun make it possible for me. Here is Dr Onokun email: dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com or website: https:// Dronokunherbalcure.wordpress.com/ page at: https://www.facebook.com/naturaltreatmentcenter1 he is welled capable of curing terrible diseases.  

    ReplyDelete
  18. Live Testimony HPV and HERPES is cureable: I am greatful to Dr Aire ,the powerful herbal healer that rescue me from HPV and HERPES. I was diagnosed of these disease in 2019 and because of this, i was very unhappy with my life and i went into research on how i can get cured and i saw a testimony of a lady on how she was cured from HERPES by Dr Aire, i decided to give him a try and when i contact him, he assure me that he will help me and send me the cure.I believed in him because all i wanted was to be cured, so he prepared a herbal cure for me and send it to me through DHL and gave me instructions on how to use it and after one week i should go to hospital for checkup and after one week of using the herbal medicine, i went to the hospital for test and to my surprise the test stated that i am HPV and HERPES negative and i am fully cured from the diseases. This gladdens my heart and everybody in the hospital was surprised even the Medical Doctor, So viewers Dr Aire is a God Gifted man and he can cure so many diseases like HIV/AIDS, HERPES,CANCER of all kind, PILE, KIDNEY PROBLEM, SYPHILIS, DIABETES, HSV1&2, HPV and lot's more. You can contact him through his email: drairehome@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on +2347036740271. I will continue to share this great testimony on the internet and all over the world for the good job Dr Aire has done for me.    

    ReplyDelete
  19. I visited different hospital but they gave me list of expensive drugs to treat the symptoms and never cured me. A closed friend of mine introduce me to a Herbal Doctor who cured her. I was scared to contact him because of what i experienced from fake doctors. she encouraged me and gave me his whatsapp contact,and i contacted him and i asked him series of questions, i also ask him to show me the results of those he have cured with his herbal drugs,and he gave me all the information i needed that gave me hope. He send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me. am now Herpes negative. God bless you for being a sincere and great man. Am so excited and am free from herpes virus. you can reach him via email;dralikaherbalhome@gmail.com or whats-app/call on +2348116570358.

    ReplyDelete

  20. I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2002. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which i come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. As of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322you will be lucky as i am today

    ReplyDelete
  21. i am really happy for being a normal human being again after taking the herbal medicine of dr Lucky the herbalist. i never believe that my GENITAL HERPES can be cure again until i visit Dr Lucky for help, he gave me his herbal medicine that cure me after 14 days, i am really happy and i am short of words, please you all should help me thank him for what he has done for me, i receive the herbal medicine through ups courier, i am now a normal human being and i am getting married next month. please you all should contact him through his email if you are a patient of GENITAL HERPES. here is his email address: drluckyherbalcure@gmail.com or you can contact him through whatsApp/Call; +2348154637647

    ReplyDelete
  22. 5 years ago I had warts, I was treated with some liquid applied to the warts they continued to grow and spread... The next 2 doctors did laser surgery to remove them. 1 year after the surgery, they grew back close to where the 1st ones were' so I was finally told it was hpv. I have had it forund out he was also infected and I end up the relationship between us. the warts was so embarrasses because it startenatural treatment from Dr onokun herbal cure, a week after applyin it's great, Dr onokun has finally cured me. Anyone living with hpv contact Dr onokun for natural treatment.His email address: dronokunherbalcure@gm‎ail.com  

    ReplyDelete
  23. ️ I’ve been Feeling weak and always feeling sleepy for some time which I went for a test and I was told I’m ❣Herpes positive so I followed a wide variety of medical treatments, I have even combined with different pills and antibiotics without clear results. My health was deteriorating more and more. But thanks to a herbal DR herbs method that I found on the internet to achieve the results i wanted, i knew from the beginning that this could help me, and I began to follow the method from Dr LUCKY and the results were wonderful: I recommend you to get in contact with him via Email:  ☘[ drluckyherbalcure@gmail.com ] ♥ or WhatsApp him: +2348154637647   

    ReplyDelete
  24. I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2002. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which i come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 or vist his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome you will be lucky as i am today

    ReplyDelete
  25. Hello everyone, sharing this testimony is my greatest happiness also to let every patient know there is cure to get rid of  human papillomavirus. I was once a HPV patient  for a very long time. I have been taking medications because my doc in Canada told me there is no cure except pills to control it which i have been taking. Until I found a faithful and truthful herbalist who finally cured me with herbal  remedy. Everything about the virus was gone, my genital warts I have been trying to remove, they all cleared off. Here is the herbalist information to reach him via : Dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com or his website  https://Dronokunherbalcure.wordpress.com or facebook page @naturaltreatmentcenter1 Dr Onokun is great and very kind to every patient.

    ReplyDelete
  26. NATURAL HERBAL REMEDY FOR HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 CURE BY Dr Lucky I'm very excited to inform everyone that I'm completely cured from my Herpes simplex 2 recently. I have used Oregano oil, Coconut oil, Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Famciclovir, and some other products and it's really help during my outbreaks but I totally got cured from my Herpes with a strong and active herbal medicine ordered from a powerful herbalist and it completely fought the virus from my nervous system and I was tested negative after 14 days of using the herbal medicine. I'm here to let y'all know that herpes virus has a complete cure, I got rid of mine with the help of Dr Lucky and his herbal exploit. Contact him via email: drluckyherbalcure@gmail.com I pray for your private intentions to be answered as you also outreach him for health problems. Him Facebook page is: https://www.facebook.com/pg/drluckyherbalcu/about/

    ReplyDelete
  27. I found out, that taking herbal treatment is the best to get rid of HPV as soon as i feel the symptoms of HPV is appearing, i took the healing process by contacting Dr Onokun for natural treatment, it works wonders and amazingly. Ever since I had the herbal treatment i have not feel these virus anymore and my doc told me the virus is gone, i am glad i finally got cured out from this disease. Any HPV or herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Onokun to get ride of any disease forever his You can contact him on his Email: Dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com or you can reach out to me for more info about this treatment. text/call me i live in the USA (208) 425 7799

    ReplyDelete
  28. I have been working with Cybervenom6 for a good while now and he's proven to be a resourceful and reliable hacker. He helped me get back my money from scam brokers and did a lot more which includes helping my friend get his bitcoin back from profitablefxtrade.com, contact him at CYBERVENOM6@GMAIL.COM. You can trust him

    ReplyDelete
  29. HOW I GOT CURED FROM HERPES VIRUSI was diagnosed of HERPES virus and i have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail,, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medications to cure all kind of diseases including HERPES virus,at first I doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try,when I contacted this herbalist via his email and he prepared a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me via UPS courier courier service, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by direction on how to apply it,after applying the way I was instructed, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr Akhanene
    this great herbal doctor via Emai drakhanenespellhome@gmail.com. or whatsapp or call him +2348168714427 HE CAN ALSO CURE SICKNESS LIKE{1}HIV/AIDS{2}DIABETES{3}EPILEPSY{4} BLOOD CANCER{5} HPV{6} ALS{7} HEPATITIS{8}LOVE SPELL{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA

    ReplyDelete