Tuesday, 31 January 2012
Water in the stratosphere of Jupiter.
Cadmium spill on Longjiang River threatens water supplies to several Chinese cities.
Large Earthquake near Ica, Peru.
Sunday, 29 January 2012
A Pachycormiform Fish from the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale.
A new study of XO-2b, a planet in a wide binary star system.
Saturday, 28 January 2012
Ubehebe Crater; a seventh potentially active volcano in California.
The Penguins of Africa.
Earthquake shakes Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan.
Friday, 27 January 2012
HAT-P-38b, the most Saturn-like exoplanet discovered yet.
Asteroid 2012 BX34 to pass within 59 000 km of Earth.
Thursday, 26 January 2012
A modern turbidite deposit from the Mediterranean Coast of Spain.
Dodecanese Islands and Crete shaken by Earthquake.
A living fossil eel discovered in Palau.
Wednesday, 25 January 2012
Was Archaeopteryx black?
Fit for Flight. Ryan Carney discusses the pigmentation of Archaeopteryx, by The Office of Public Affairs and University Relations at Brown University.
This has lead to widespread assertions in the press and on the internet that Archaeopteryx was black, something that Carney et al. have not actually said. The study only identifies a single feather as being (probably) black, a feather that was not actually found associated with a skeletal fossil. Since this was the original fossil assigned to the species Archaeopteryx lithographica, it could be argued on the strength of this that Archaeopteryx was black, but only by excluding all other Archaeopteryx fossils from the group. In fact there have been arguments about the classification of Archaeopteryx over the years, with some scientists having assigned all the specimens to different genera (though this was overruled by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature) and many scientists still assigning the different specimens to different species, so in a sense the single feather is the entire species, but this is not what is being implied.
As Carney et al. have been keen to point out, melanosomes have a structural as well as a colouring role in birds, so black feathers ten to be stronger than lighter coloured feathers. Thus flight feathers (such as the one studied) are often black on birds that are not black all over, whereas down feathers, which form an insulating layer beneath the bird's outer feathers, are usually white or light in colour.
Exactly how strong a flier Archaeopteryx was is still in dispute, but even a feather evolved for a different purpose that happened to be black would hold a slight advantage over one of another colour when getting airborne, so it is interesting, but not that surprising, to discover that the flight feathers of Archaeopteryx were black (OK finding out the colour of the feather was an amazing piece of work, but finding out that colour was black is less astounding).
Comparison with modern birds suggests the colour of the flight feathers is often independent of the colour of the rest of the bird, so even if we assume that the feather does come from the animal we think of as Archaeopteryx, we cannot assume from that that the bird was in fact black.
See also A new fossil bird from the Palaeocene of Brazil, How did raptors use their claws? (and did it help them learn to fly?), Dinosaur feathers preserved in amber, Giant bird from the Cretaceous of Kazakhstan, New 'oldest bird' found in China and Birds on Sciency Thoughts YouTube.