Monday 7 December 2020

Asteroid 2020 XC passes the Earth.

Asteroid 2020 XC passed by the Earth at a distance of about 121 800 km (0.32 times the average distance between the Earth and the Moon, or 0.08% of the distance between the Earth and the Sun), slightly after 10.15 am GMT on Monday 30 November 2020. There was no danger of the asteroid hitting us, though were it to do so it would not have presented a significant threat. 2020 XC has an estimated equivalent diameter of 3-9 m (i.e. it is estimated that a spherical object with the same volume would be 3-9 m in diameter), and an object of this size would be expected to explode in an airburst (an explosion caused by superheating from friction with the Earth's atmosphere, which is greater than that caused by simply falling, due to the orbital momentum of the asteroid) more than 33 km above the ground, with only fragmentary material reaching the Earth's surface.

The closest approach of 2020 XC to the Earth on 30 November 2020. JPL Small Body Database.

2020 XC was discovered on 4 December 2020 (four days after its closest approach to the Earth) by the University of Arizona's Mt. Lemmon Survey at the Steward Observatory on Mount Lemmon in the Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. The designation 2020 XC implies that the asteroid was the third object (asteroid C - in numbering asteroids the letters A-Z excluding I, are assigned numbers from 1 to 25, with a number added to the end each time the alphabet is ended, so that A = 1, A1 = 26, A2 = 51, etc., which means that C = 3) discovered in the first half of December 2020 (period 2020 X - the year being split into 24 half-months represented by the letters A-Y, with I being excluded).

The orbit and current position of 2020 XC. The Sky Live 3D Solar System Simulator.

2020 XC has a 366 day (1 year) orbital period, with an elliptical orbit tilted at an angle of 0.76° to the plain of the Solar System which takes in to 0.89 AU from the Sun (89% of the distance at which the Earth orbits the Sun) and out to 1.11 AU (111% of the distance at which the Earth orbits the Sun, and more than the distance at which the planet Mars orbits the Sun). Although it does cross the Earth's orbit and is briefly further from the Sun on each cycle, 2020 XC spends most of its time closer to the Sun than we are, and is therefore classified as an Aten Group Asteroid.  Close encounters between 2020 XC and Earth are fairly common, with the last thought to have happened in December last year (2019) and the next predicted in June next year (2021). 2020 XC also has occasional close encounters with the planet Venus, with the next predicted in December 2025.

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